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Full text of "The Improvement Era"

President IleberJ.<irant in Japan in 1901 
Speeial feature: The Church in Asia, see page 14 





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Provo, Utah 84601 





The Voice of the Church • March 1970 • Volume 73, Number 3 



Special Features 

2 Editor's Page: To Know for Ourselves, President Joseph Fielding Smith 

4 President Joseph Fielding Smith, Albert L Zobell, Jr. 

9 President Harold B. Lee 

11 President N. Eldon Tanner 

13 President Spencer W. Kimball 

14 The Future of the Church in Asia, Elder Ezra Taft Benson 

15 The Mission Presidents in Asia Report 

23 The History of the Church in Japan, Eleanor Knowles 

27 The Influence of Latter-day Saint Servicemen in Asia, W. Brent Hardy 

29 A Photographic Review of the Church in Asia 

32 The Beginnings in Thailand, Craig G. Christensen 

35 The Early Missions to Burma and Siam, Dr. R. Lanier Britsch 

84 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 10, The Sacrifice of 
Isaac, Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Regular Features 

60 Genealogy: Genealogical Research in Asia, John W. Orton 

65 Buffs and Rebuffs 

66 Today's Family: Gardens Are Such Friendly People, Florence Bittner 
70 Research & Review: A Study of the Text of the Inspired Revision of 

the Bible, Dr. Truman G. Madsen 

72 LDS Scene 

78 Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About 
Goals, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

80 These Times: Who Should Be Educated for What? Dr. G. Homer 
Durham 

95 End of an Era 
38, 63, 65, 76 

The Spoken Word, Richard L Evans 

46-59 EraOl Youth Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 



75, 90 Poetry 



Joseph Fielding Smith, Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L, Green, Managing Editor; Jay M. Todd, Assistant Managing Editor; Eleanor 
Knowles, Copy Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Manuscript Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; William T, Sykes, Editorial 
Associate; G. Homer Durham, Hugh Nibley, Albert L. Payne, Truman G. Madsen, Elliott Landau, Leonard Arrington, Contributing 
Editors; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman 
Price, Staff Artist. 

W. Jay Eldredge, General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen 
Snarr, Circulation Manager; S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representative. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1970; 
published by the Mutual Improvement Associations. All rights reserved. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in section 1103, Act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

Subscription price $3.00 a year, in advance; multiple subscriptions, 2 years, $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year, $2.50 
added to the three-year price; 35c single copy except special issues. Thirty days' notice required for change of address. When 
ordering a change, please include your address label from a recent issue of the magazine; address changes cannot be made unless 
the old address, as well as the new one, is included. 

The Improvement Era welcomes contributions but is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts. Manuscripts must be accom- 
panied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. Payment is made upon acceptance. 

Advertising: The Era is pleased to carry advertisements of interest to readers, but doing so does not imply Church endorsement 
of the advertiser or his product. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, Music 
Committee, Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 



On the Cover: 

On February 14, 1901, the First Pres- 
idency announced that a new mission 
was to be created in Japan and that 
Elder Heber J. Grant of the Council of 
the Twelve had been appointed as the 
mission president. Some six months 
later, 45-year-old Heber J. Grant 
stepped into the almost mysterious 
world of the Orient. It was an experi- 
ence that he was never to forget. Before 
he left for Japan, a farewell gathering in 
his honor was held in Salt Lake City, 
at which President Joseph F. Smith 
spoke: ". . . we are pleased to think 
that to you has been entrusted the great 
labor of opening the door ... to one of 
the foremost nations of the earth today. 
They are the children of God, and have 
souls to save; they are bright and in- 
genious . . . [Heber J. Grant's] name 
will go down to all time in honor and 
blessing, and hundreds, yea thousands 
and perhaps millions, will receive the 
gospel as a result of his labors in the 
beginning. . . ." 

Since those early days almost seven 
decades ago, the door to Asia has not 
always been open nor friendly, but in 
the words of those charged with the 
responsibility at present, "in the time- 
table of the Lord it is the time for Asia." 
This month our cover features a paint- 
ing by Dale Kilbourn of President Grant 
in Japan in 1901. 

Also on the cover are several photo- 
graphs of contemporary Japanese Lat- 
ter-day Saints participating in Church 
activities. The photographs are courtesy 
of the Church Information Service. Arti- 
cles on the Church in Asia begin on 
page 14. 




Elder Heber J. Grant of the Council of the 
Twelve, at the time the Japanese Mission 
was opened, in 1901. 



The Editors F&ge 




To Know for Ourselves 



By President Joseph Fielding Smith 

• The Improvement Era has been a part of my life 
for a long time, and this is especially so because of the 
influence of my father. In 1897, my father, Joseph F. 
Smith, who was then second counselor in the First 
Presidency to President Wilford Woodruff, joined 
with Elder Heber J. Grant of the Council of the Twelve 
in the formation of The Improvement Era (both men 
had the added responsibility of being assistant general 
superintendents in the Young Men's Mutual Improve- 
ment Association). Father and President Brigham H. 
Roberts of the First Council of the Seventy, another 
assistant YMMIA superintendent, were the first editors, 
and Brother Grant was the business manager, with 
Thomas Hull as his assistant. These brethren spent 
many, many hours, nights as well as days, praying and 
working together for the success of the Era. 

Joseph F. Smith wrote many things for it, some of 
which he signed and some that he did not. His signed 
pieces most often appeared in what was called "The 
Editor's Table," near the back of the magazine each 
month. He was also the magazine's senior editor while 
he was second counselor to President Lorenzo Snow 
after the death of President Woodruff. When President 
Snow died, Father, as President of the Twelve, became 
President of the Church. At that time it was decided 
that the President of the Church should be the senior 
editor of the Era. 



I remember with fondness the early days of my 
association with the magazine, for which I wrote 
articles about Church history. For volume eight ( 1904- 
1905) I wrote articles called "Events of the Month," 
which was the "Church Moves On" of that day. But 
the column was more than it is today. In those days 
there was no late evening news on radio or television. 
We knew that the Era was the only contact that many 
of our subscribers had with the world. Therefore, each 
"Events of the Month" had three sections— local, 
domestic, and foreign. The first section had, in addi- 
tion to news of the growth of the Church, notices of 
the deaths of some of the Saints. The local section 
also had notices of the opening of schools. The domes- 
tic and foreign sections reported on current events on 
the national and international scene and were usually 
non-Church in nature. 

As President of the Church, Joseph F. Smith con- 
tinued to write for the Era, and his writings were much 
read and still are quoted. In 1918, at his passing, 
President Heber J. Grant became President of the 
Church and senior editor of the Era. During his ad- 
ministration his contributions were moved to the front 
of the magazine and became known as "The Editor's 
Page." That page was used by President George Albert 
Smith and President David O. McKay during their 
administrations. 



Now I am happy to be senior editor of the Era and 
to use this page to discuss with you, month by month, 
subjects pertinent to the restored gospel. 

Let us begin with the subject of testimony, some- 
thing that all members of the Church should have. 
Nourish your testimony and make it grow, every day 
of your life. You know that there is no reason in the 
world why any soul should not know where to find 
the truth. If he will only humble himself and seek in 
the spirit of humility and faith, going to the Lord just 
as the Prophet Joseph Smith went to him to find the 
truth, he will find it. There is no doubt about it. If 
men and women will only hearken to the whisperings 
of the Spirit of the Lord, and seek as he would have 
them seek for the knowledge and understanding of the 
gospel of Jesus Christ, there is no reason in the world 
for them not to find it— no reason, that is, except the 
hardness of their hearts and their love of the world. 
"Knock, and it shall be opened unto you." (Matt. 7:7.) 

The first things a person must have in order to 
qualify as an officer or a teacher in this Church are 
a knowledge of the principles of the gospel and a 
testimony of the mission of the Redeemer and of the 
mission of the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

There is no doubt in my mind that the Lord raised 
the Prophet Joseph Smith up and gave him revelation, 
commandment, opened the heavens to him, and called 



upon him to stand at the head of this glorious dispen- 
sation. I am perfectly satisfied in my mind that in his 
youth, when he went out to pray, he beheld and stood 
in the actual presence of God the Father and his Son 
Jesus Christ; in my mind there is no doubt— I know 
this to be true. I know that he later received visitations 
from Moroni, the Aaronic Priesthood under the hands 
of John the Baptist, the Melchizedek Priesthood under 
the hands of Peter, James, and John, and that The 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was 
organized on the sixth day of April 1830, by divine 
command. 

I know that the power of the Almighty is guiding 
this people, that we are under covenant to keep his 
commandments, to walk in light and truth. It is my 
firm conviction that every member of this Church 
should be able to bear witness and declare by words 
of soberness that these things are true, that the Book of 
Mormon is true, that the destiny of this latter-day 
work is true, and that, according to the revelations, it 
must and will be fulfilled. 

And every soul upon the face of the earth who has a 
desire to know it has the privilege of knowing for 
himself, for every soul that will humble himself, and 
in the depths of humility and faith, with' a contrite 
spirit, go before the Lord, will receive that knowledge 
just as surely as he lives. O 



Era, March 1970 3 





fTcsiUQiti tioscpn ricitiing &1111111 



By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 
Research Editor 



"Come, listen to a prophet's voice, 

And hear the word of God, 

And in the way of truth rejoice, 

And sing for joy aloud. 

We've found the way the prophets went 

Who lived in days of yore; 

Another prophet now is sent 

This knowledge to restore." 

—Hymns, No. 46 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has 
a new Prophet and President. Yet, in reality he is an 
old friend: President Joseph Fielding Smith has been 
with the Saints in times of sorrow as well as rejoicing 
for almost a century. 

This observation is intended not only by way of 
introduction to the new President, but also by way 
of recalling high points of his lifetime of service in 
the building up of the Church and kingdom of God 
on earth, climaxed on January 23, 1970, when the 
Council of the Twelve met prayerfully in the Salt Lake 
Temple and named President Joseph Fielding Smith 
as the tenth President of the Church. At this historic 
meeting, after the members of the Twelve had sung 
"Guide Us, O Thou Great Jehovah," each of them, in 
turn, bore his testimony. Before the five-hour meeting 
was over, President Joseph Fielding Smith had been 
confirmed President of .the Church and set apart by the 
Twelve, with Harold B. Lee as voice. The new Presi- 
dent then selected Elder Lee as his first counselor and 
Elder Nathan Eldon Tanner as his second counselor, 
and with the Twelve he set them apart. President Lee, 
who will also now serve as president of the Twelve, 
was voice as Elder Spencer W. Kimball was set apart 
as acting president of that body. 

And thus was called to head the Church a man who 



had been schooled and prepared in nearly all areas 
of Church service since his early youth. 

Joseph Fielding Smith's ancestors include the early 
American patriots of New England, and in his veins 
courses the blood of one of the martyrs who died as a 
witness to the restoration of the gospel. His great- 
grandfather, Joseph Smith, Sr., father of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith, was the first Patriarch of the Church. 
At his death, his son, Hyrum Smith (Joseph Fielding 
Smith's grandfather), became Patriarch to the Church. 
He was martyred only moments before his brother 
Joseph at Carthage, Illinois, the afternoon of June 27, 
1844. 

President Smith's father was Joseph F. Smith, sixth 
President of the Church (1901-1918), who as a boy 
of nine drove an ox team across the plains with his 
widowed mother to their new home in the Salt Lake 
Valley. Of him it was written: "He was not only a 
great father and a mighty preacher of righteousness, 
but he typified our loftiest conception of a real man— 
a man whose convictions were backed by loyalty and 
consecrated devotion to the truth, that was never 
challenged by friend or foe." 1 

Through his mother, Julina Lambson Smith, Presi- 
dent Smith also descended from worthy ancestors. At 
the feet of his great father and an equally wonderful 
and spiritual mother, young Joseph Fielding, who was 
born July 19, 1876, gained faith in and a love for the 
Lord and his work. His foundation in gospel princi- 
ples and all that is right and true was laid early, and 
this foundation broadened mightily with the passing 
of years. 

He learned to work on the family farm in Taylors- 
ville, Salt Lake County. An early memory is of milking 
the family cow without permission "before I was 
baptized." Milking was a task that had been given to 



an older sister, but apparently he did it well enough 
that he soon found himself given the job. 

He learned early to work with animals, with nature, 
with men, and with God. His own growing testimony 
was aided by the faith and works of his father, who had 
been a full-time missionary at 15 and an apostle ten 
years before Joseph Fielding was born, and who had 
been called as second counselor in the First Presidency 
when his namesake son was only four years of age. 

Another of the family tasks that fell his lot was that 
of being stable boy for his mother in her capacity as a 
licensed midwife. At all hours of the night he was 
called from his deep boyhood sleep to harness a horse 
so she could go where she was needed. He would 
light a kerosene lantern and go to the barn, and soon 
the horse would be ready. 

Reflecting on those early years, he has mixed 
memories of Juny, a fine horse that his father had 
purchased from President George Q. Cannon of the 
First Presidency: 

"She was so smart she learned how to unlock one 
kind of corral fastener after another that I contrived, 
until Father said to me, half humorously, that Juny 
seemed to be smarter than I was. So Father himself 
fastened her in with a strap and buckle. As he did so, 
the mare eyed him coolly; and, as soon as our backs 
were turned, she set to work with her teeth until she 
actually undid the buckle and followed us out, some- 
what to my delight. I could not refrain from suggesting 
to Father that I was not the only one whose head 
compared unfavorably with the mare's." 

There was the time when "Father chastised me with 
three or four light touches of a buggy whip for a 
misdeed I had not committed. Father later atoned for 
the misapplied punishment with these sage and 
humorously spoken words, 'Oh well, we'll let that 
apply on some things you got by with when you 
didn't get punished.' " 

Recently the author was privileged to hear the re- 
corded voices of five former Presidents of the Church. 
He was awed, as were others who listened, at the simi- 
larity between the voices of Joseph F. Smith and 
his son Joseph Fielding Smith, the only father and son 
who have been Presidents of the Church. 

As a young man, Joseph Fielding Smith was active 
in the organizations of the Church, including service 
as superintendent of the 16th Ward Sunday School. 
When he became of age, he attended the LDS Uni- 
versity and worked at one time at ZCMI to help pay 
his expenses. 

He was ordained an elder in 1897 and entered the 
British Mission in 1899 as a seventy. Returning home 
in June 1901, he obtained employment as a clerk in 




President Joseph Fielding Smith, tenth President of the Church. 



President and Sister Smith at home. 





Top: President Joseph F. and Julina L. Smith, parents of President 
Joseph Fielding Smith. Above: Meeting with Latter-day Saint servicemen 
in the Orient in 1955. Below: In 1960, President Smith was made an 
honorary brigadier general in the Utah National Guard for a "lifetime of 
administering to the spiritual needs of mankind." 



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the Church Historian's Office, beginning there Octo- 
ber 4, 1901. He became the librarian January 1, 
1904, and at the April 1906 general conference was 
sustained as an assistant Church Historian, a position 
he held until March 17, 1921, when he became Church 
Historian. (As he now leaves the Church Historian's 
quarters to become President of the Church, he has 
served in that office for almost half the time that 
the Church has been organized.) 

After Elder Smith's return from his mission in 1901, 
he served nine years as a home missionary in the Salt 
Lake Stake. In 1903 he was set apart as a president 
of the 24th quorum of seventies, and the following 
year he was appointed to the Salt Lake Stake high 
council. Long active in the MIA, he served as a 
member of the YMMIA general board from 1903 to 
1919. 

President Smith's call to be a General Authority 
came at the April 1910 general conference, when, at the 
age of 33, he was sustained as a member of the 
Council of the Twelve. He was ordained an apostle 
April 7, 1910, by his father, who was then President 
of the Church. 

President Smith became acting president of the 
Council of the Twelve in August 1951, following the 
death of President George F. Richards. (President 
David O. McKay, who was then serving as second 
counselor in the First Presidency, was president of the 
Twelve.) When President George Albert Smith died 
in April 1951, Joseph Fielding Smith, as the new 
president of the Council of the Twelve, was voice as 
the Twelve set apart David O. McKay as ninth Presi- 
dent of the Church. Some 14 and a half years later 
President Smith was named a counselor to President 
McKay in the First Presidency. 

Elder Richard L. Evans, who was President Smith's 
neighbor for many years, has said of him: 

"We see Brother Smith as the father and grandfather 
and husband of many talents and of much devotion— 
as the father who attends the bedside of the sick, who 
performs early and late, at all hours, many kindly 
services, who counsels with his own and others on 
personal problems, school problems, social problems, 
spiritual problems. 

"There are also those who know him as a confiding 
friend and counselor in his office. There are those 
who know him as a storyteller of impressive sincerity. 
(And there are even some who know him as the 'baby 
sitter,' which he has been for his children and his 
children's children.) There are those who know the 
quickness of his humor, the tenderness of his heart, the 
sympathy of his soul. 

"He loves life, and he has shown by his life that 




The family of President Smith in the late 1930's. Lewis (insert), then serving a mission, was later killed in World War II. 



he loves truth, that he loves the Church, and that he 
loves his Father's children. And he is, in turn, not only 
admired and respected, but also loved for his sterling 
qualities of character, and for himself." 2 

That neighborly insight continues to hold true. 
President Smith's home and family have always been 
uppermost in his mind. In 1898 he married Louie E. 
Shurtliff. She died in March 1908, leaving him with 
two small daughters. Later that same year he married 
Ethel G. Reynolds, and they became the parents of 
nine children. But again death took his companion 
when she died in August 1937. On April 12, 1938, 
Elder Smith married Jessie Evans, whose beautiful 
contralto voice had earned a place for her in the Salt 
Lake Tabernacle Choir and who had sung widely in 
operas and concerts. 

During 1939 Elder Smith filled a special assignment 
for the Church in Europe. With Sister Smith, he ar- 
rived in England the first week in May; after visits 
there, they left for the continent to meet with Saints 
and missionaries in Holland, Belgium, France, Switzer- 
land, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Germany. 

But international affairs were critical that summer, 
and World War II broke out in September when 
Germany invaded Poland. President Smith was in 
Germany at the time, and it was there that he re- 
ceived a cablegram from the First Presidency directing 
him to supervise the evacuation of all American 
missionaries from the European continent. 

With the inspiration of the Lord and with the com- 
mon bond of brotherhood among the missionaries, 
the task was begun. The exact whereabouts of many 
elders among the frightened, moving masses of people 
were unknown, Many missionaries were given train 
fare for themselves and several others and were in- 
structed to locate their fellow missionaries. Through- 
out the Church these brothers, many of whom are now 
bishops, mission presidents, and stake presidents, 
testify that they received impressions to leave their 



trains, enter the seething waiting rooms of the depots, 
and whistle a church hymn. Sometimes it was "Do 
What Is Right" or "Come, Come Ye Saints." Suddenly 
from the crowd their sought-for fellow missionary 
would appear, and they would run and catch the de- 
parting train. 

These missionaries were sent back to the United 
States by ship, having to take their turns in the "sub- 
marine watch." Some who were approaching the end 
of their missions were given honorable releases, and 
others were reassigned to missions in the United 
States. President and Sister Smith returned to Salt 
Lake City in November 1939. 

It is well known that President Smith is the author 
of many books and pamphlets and is one of the great 
spokesmen on Church doctrine. Not so well known 
is the fact that he has written words to several hymns. 
One, "The Best Is Not Too Good for Me," was written 
in his youth after he had received advice from his 
father concerning an employment opportunity. The 
music was written by Tracy Y. Cannon. The music 
for another, "Come, Come, My Brother, Wake! Awake!" 
is by Evan Stephens. George D. Pyper wrote the 
music for his "Does the Journey Seem Long?" Another, 
"We Are Watchmen of the Tower of Zion," has music 
by Alexander Schreiner. 

President Smith has long been a supporter of the 
growth of the city and its institutions. This story is 
told of him: "During the early months of 1933, in the 
midst of the great depression, banks were failing all 
over the U.S. One morning a crowd of good men who 
should have known better formed in the street to make 
a run on Zion's Savings Bank and Trust Company as 
soon as it opened. Suddenly in the back of the crowd 
came a voice of authority: 'Let me through. I want to 
make a deposit.' It was Joseph Fielding Smith who was 
waving his bank book and a roll of paper money. Some 
of the crowd had second thoughts about the bank and 
went on their way." 



Era, March 1970 7 



In his youth President Smith was active in athletics, 
and he continues to maintain an interest in the field, 
lending strong support to the recreational program for 
youth of the Church. He played handball, a strenuous 
game that demands alertness of both mind and 
muscle, until his seventieth birthday. 

President Smith's unusual life span spreads from the 
covered wagon to the jet plane. In his early years as 
a member of the Council of the Twelve he and his 
assigned companion would sometimes journey to stake 
conferences by starting out by train, then transferring 
to a wagon, and sometimes making even a third trans- 
fer, and perhaps completing their journey on horse- 
back. 

This memory is in contrast to another experience of 
a few years ago. One weekend President Smith found 
himself with an appointment that would keep him in 
the Salt Lake City area for the greater part of Satur- 
day. However, he had been assigned to conduct a 
quarterly stake conference in the San Francisco area 
Saturday evening and Sunday. This worried President 
Smith, who prides himself on the way his appointments 
seldom, if ever, are in conflict. But it looked as if, 
this time, one appointment would have to be cancelled. 

He casually mentioned the problem to a young friend 
who was a jet pilot in the National Guard. The pilot 
replied, "You know, my crew is lacking some air time 
this month. We've got to fly some place to log out 
time. The Bay Area is just about the distance we need 
to keep our training record up to where it should be 
this month. Let's fly there late Saturday afternoon 
and return Sunday evening." 

President Smith kept both of his Saturday appoint- 
ments that week, and he and his younger friends 
enjoyed themselves at quarterly conference on Sunday. 

In June 1959, several members of President Smith's 
staff at the Church Historian's Office took a short 
vacation, going partway down the Colorado River by 
boat. 

Returning to the office, Earl E. Olson, who was 
then librarian and is now assistant Church Historian, 
said, "For a real vacation, President Smith, you ought 
to try that river trip sometime." 

"Why should I spend all that time?" was his forth- 
right answer. "I've been over the Colorado River terri- 
tory in a jet plane of the National Guard. We've flown 
high and we've gone down low. I've seen the Colorado 
River in a way that few have seen it." 

When President Smith reached his eightieth birth- 
day in 1956, the other members of the Twelve said 
of him: 

"We who labor in the Council of the Twelve under 
his leadership have occasion to glimpse the true nobil- 



ity of his character. Daily we see continuing evidences 
of his understanding and thoughtful consideration of 
his fellow workers in making our assignments and in 
co-ordinating our efforts to the end that the work of 
the Lord might move forward. We only wish that the 
entire Church could feel the tenderness of his soul 
and his great concern over the welfare of the unfor- 
tunate and those in distress. He loves all the Saints 
and never ceases to pray for the sinner. . . ." :i 

It is difficult if not impossible to name a part of our 
Heavenly Father's work of which President Smith is 
not especially fond, for which he has not used his 
talents in laboring long and hard. Particularly have 
his magnificent labors been expended in matters per- 
taining to genealogy and the work of the temples. A 
year after his appointment as assistant Church His- 
torian he was named secretary and director of the 
Genealogical Society. In 1934 he began more than a 
quarter century of service as president of that society, 
being released in 1961. He served as a counselor in 
the presidency of the Salt Lake Temple from February 
1915 to January 1935, and as president of that temple 
from 1945 to 1949. He has been present at the dedica- 
tions of nine temples— St. George, Salt Lake, Hawaii, 
Alberta, Arizona, Idaho Falls, Los Angeles, London, 
and Oakland. 

It can truly be said of him that he lives for the 
Church and for his family— and delights wherever he 
sees spiritual development and growth. 

A Saturday near the date of his birthday is reserved 
for his family. On these happy days, family members 
meet in a park in Salt Lake City, play games, tell 
stories, sing songs, and enjoy a traditional dinner. Im- 
portant parts of these occasions are the words of advice 
from President Smith and the presents he distributes 
to each one. The novel technique of giving his de- 
scendants presents on his birthday eliminates the 
problem of his having to remember well over one 
hundred birthdays each year. Of his ten living children 
(a son, Lewis, was killed in military service during 
World War II), all have been married in the temple 
and, at this writing, 27 grandchildren have been mar- 
ried in the temple by their grandfather. All five sons 
have fulfilled missions. 

This is but a glimpse of the character and spiritual 
strength of Joseph Fielding Smith, prophet, seer, 
revelator, and tenth President of the Church. Surely 
he has an important role to perform for the Lord, this 
people, and the entire world in this day. O 



Bryant S. Hinckley, "Joseph Fielding Smith," The Improve- 
ment Era, June 1932, pp. 458-59. 

-The Improvement Era, September 1951, p. 687. 
'•The Improvement Era, July 1956, p. 495. 



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First Counselor in the First Presidency 



• "Harold B. Lee is a powerful man in modern Israel. 
The source of his strength is in his knowledge that he 
lives in the shadow of the Almighty. To him, his 
Heavenly Father is a senior partner, daily giving him 
guidance. His contacts with heaven are direct and 
regular. To him, the gospel of Jesus Christ is eternal 
truth, and he finds therein the solution to every human 
problem." 1 

A pillar of faith and works is this man whom Presi- 
dent Joseph Fielding Smith has selected as his first 
counselor. President Lee is also senior member and 
president of the Council, of the Twelve. Since April 
1941, as an apostle of the Lord, he has raised his voice 
and made his presence felt for righteousness in the 
far and near places of the Church. Even before that, 
beginning in 1936, when he was appointed to be man- 
aging editor of the then infant Church Welfare Pro- 
gram, his influence was soon felt Churchwide. 

Born March 28, 1899, at Clifton, Idaho, one of six 
children to bless the home of Samuel M. and Louisa 
Bingham Lee, President Lee knew the discipline of 
youthful days in a rural community. With his brother 
Perry, he took turns driving a small sorrel pony hitched 
to the shafts of a two-wheeled cart three miles to the 
district school. He had entered the district school at 
the age of five and enrolled in the Oneida Stake 
Academy at 13. To him learning was fascinating, and 
he made it so later for his students. He entered Albion 
State Normal School in Idaho at the age of 17, and 
was teaching near Weston, Idaho, before his appoint- 
ment as principal of the district school at Oxford, 
Idaho, at the age of 18. School for him extended 
beyond the horizon of books and papers; he partici- 
pated in basketball and debating, and he played the 
slide trombone, a talent that gave him joyful hours as 
a member of dance bands. 



Early in his life President Lee studied the piano, and 
some of his most pleasurable hours have come in shar- 
ing music with his family. After he became a member 
of the Council of the Twelve, he would often accom- 
pany the brethren on the piano as they sang in their 
council meetings. Stake and ward officers have been 
surprised and pleased when he has offered to sub- 
stitute for an absent organist. 

With the love of truth and completeness of faith 
that are so much a part of him, he accepted a call to 
the Western States Mission, for which he departed 
in November 1920. During his two-year mission he 
served as president of the Denver District. 

After his release, he moved to Salt Lake City, where 
he attended summer sessions at the University of 
Utah. From 1923 to 1928 he continued his education 
by correspondence courses and extension classes, 
while serving as principal of two schools in the Granite 
School District, Salt Lake County. He then became 
first a salesman and later intermountain manager for a 
library distributing organization. This position he held 
until 1932, when he agreed to accept an appointment 
as a Salt Lake City commissioner. He gained the 
respect of many of his fellow townspeople for the way 
he handled his responsibilities for the departments of 
streets and public properties, and he was elected for a 
second term. He resigned the commissionership in 
1936 when he was called as managing director of the 
Church Welfare Program. 

During the late 1920s he served the Church as 
Pioneer Stake religion class superintendent, Sunday 
School superintendent, and counselor in the stake 
presidency. In 1930 he was made president of Pioneer 
Stake, a position he held for seven years. During this 
time Pioneer Stake made great strides in leadership 
and teacher training programs, in a ward budget 



Era, March 1970 9 




A recent photograph of President Harold B. Lee 



President and Sister Lee at home 




plan, and in a youth recreational program, including 
the building of a gymnasium for stake activities. 

At that time the country was in the midst of a great 
depression, and President Lee was faced with the 
tremendous problem of looking after the needs of his 
stake membership. Believing that "all things are pos- 
sible to him that believeth," he encouraged the 
establishment of practices of self-help among his 
people. He instituted a stake welfare program and 
established a warehouse for storing food and other 
commodities. These practices, combined with the 
ideas and welfare programs of other stakes at that 
time, embodied the heart and core of the general 
Church Welfare Program. 

For his efforts in this one phase of his life's activities 
alone, he richly merited the honorary doctor of humani- 
ties degree awarded to him by Utah State Agricultural 
College (now Utah State University). 

President Lee believes that "this dispensation in 
which you and I live is intended to be a demonstra- 
tion of the power and effectiveness of the gospel 
of Jesus Christ to meet our every-day problems here 
and now." The buoyancy of spirit and zest for life that 
characterize Harold B. Lee have kept him always in 
tune with the needs of the people of the Church. His 
constant counsel to the young people of the Church 
to "put on the breastplate of righteousness" is worthy 
advice to all of us. 

On November 14, 1923, Harold B. Lee married Fern 
Lucinda Tanner in the Salt Lake Temple. They were 
blessed with two daughters, Maurine Wilkins (de- 
ceased) and Helen (Mrs. L. Brent Goates). In 1962 
Sister Lee passed away, and in 1963 President Lee 
married Freda Joan Jensen. 

The example and teachings of his wise and stal- 
wart parents and the constant strength and support 
that he has found in his own home and its under- 
standing relationships have given underlying meaning 
to the great emphasis President Lee has placed in 
recent years on the family home evening, home teach- 
ing, and the strengthening of the priesthood in the 
home. He has shown his deep love for his fellowmen 
in the leadership and drive he has given as chairman 
of the executive committee of the Church Correlation 
Program. As he now assumes his new position in the 
First Presidency, his rich heritage and experience, his 
wisdom and courage, his strong testimony and great 
faith will find even wider expression in carrying out 
the purposes of Church correlation: to make the 
Church more closely knit and to build the kingdom 
of God on earth. O 



1 Marion G. Romney, "Harold B. Lee: Apostle of the Lord,' 
The Improvement Era, July 1953, p. 504. 






resident ]\. Eldon Tanner 

Second Counselor in the First Presidency 



• "Few men are chosen for high office in the Church 
who have a richer heritage and more varied back- 
ground of training and experience than Nathan Eldon 
1 anner. 

This description of President Tanner, who has been 
called to serve as second counselor in the First Presi- 
dency under President Joseph Fielding Smith, is as 
true today as it was several years ago when it was 
first uttered by one who has long been associated 
with him, Elder Hugh B. Brown. 

For some nine and a half years, since he was first 
called to sit in the general councils of the Church, 
first as an Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, then 
as an apostle, and more recently as second counselor 
to President David O. McKay, members of the Church 
worldwide have come to know and to appreciate 
President Tanner's honesty and integrity, his admin- 
istrative know-how, and his broadly based sympathy 
for fairness and the right. His counsel and addresses 
have shown him to be a man to whom youth draws 
near as he discusses with feeling his thoughts about 
the simple yet all-important rules of conduct for a 
happy and productive life. 

Nathan Eldon Tanner was born in Salt Lake City, 
Utah, May 9, 1898. His parents, Nathan William and 
Sarah Edna Brown Tanner, had gone to Canada as a 
young married couple, but she returned to Salt Lake 
City for the arrival of her firstborn in her parents' home. 
When Eldon was six weeks old, his mother and her new 
baby, traveling by train and wagon, returned to the 
dugout home on their homestead amid the Latter-day 
Saint colonists of southern Alberta, Canada. There he 



grew strong in mind, body, and spirit in the rugged 
environment of that sparsely settled nation. He was 
reared in wheatlands and often guided a plow behind 
plodding oxen. He learned to love all of God's crea- 
tions, especially his fellowmen. 

Opportunities for education were meager at the 
time; but upon completion of the eighth grade he 
found that if he could convince four others to enroll 
for grade nine, the principal would teach it. He found 
the four, but farm responsibilities kept him away from 
school until after Christmas. He later borrowed money 
and went away to school for two years, before return- 
ing home to teach. Some of his students, feeling the 
inspiration of his teaching, desired grade 12, which he 
himself had never taken. Arrangements were made 
for the Alberta Provincial Department of Education to 
prepare the lesson materials, and he and his advanced 
students would complete their lessons and mail them 
to the department for grading. It was an unusual class, 
with teacher and students graduating from grade 12 
together. 

After graduation from Normal School in 1919, he 
accepted a position as principal of a three-room school 
at Hill Spring, Alberta. There he met and fell in love 
with one of the teachers, Sara Isabelle Merrill. They 
were married on December 20, 1919, and their home 
was later blessed with five daughters. (President and 
Sister Tanner recently celebrated their golden wedding 
anniversaiy in the Hawaiian Islands with 38 members 
of their family. ) 

From his early youth there was never a time when 
Nathan Eldon Tanner was not active in the Church, 



Era, March 1970 11 




President Tanner has greatly encouraged the growth of the Genealogical 
Society's fanned microfilming program. 

Below: To celebrate their fiftieth wedding anniversary, President and 
Sister Tanner took their children and grandchildren to Hawaii. 




beginning with his service as president of his deacons 
quorum. In Cardston, Alberta, he served first as coun- 
selor in the bishopric and then as bishop of the 
Cardston First Ward. In 1938, when the family moved 
to Edmonton, he was named branch president, a posi- 
tion he held until September 1952. In 1953 he became 
the first president of the Calgary Stake, in which 
position he was serving when he was called to be an 
Assistant to the Council of the Twelve in 1960. At the 
October 1962 general conference he was sustained as a 
member of the Council of the Twelve, and a year later 
as second counselor in the First Presidency. 

In his professional life, President Tanner has also 
served willingly and with distinction. He was in the 
field of education in Hill Spring and then Cardston 
until 1935, when he was persuaded to become a candi- 
date for the Alberta Provincial legislature. He was 
elected and subsequently became speaker of the legis- 
lature. In December 1936 he was asked to join the 
Alberta Provincial government cabinet. After much 
personal reflection and urging by his associates, he ac- 
cepted the assignment of Minister of Lands and Mines, 
to administer the natural resources of the vast mineral- 
and oil-rich province of Alberta. The conservation 
program that he organized during his tenure has be- 
come the pattern for other Canadian provinces and 
other lands as well. 

Canada was a growing, expanding economic giant 
when in 1952 President Tanner left his government 
post to accept a position in the growing petroleum in- 
dustry, as president first of Merrill Petroleums of 
Canada and then of the vast Canadian Pipe Line Com- 
pany, stretching from Alberta to Quebec. 

Despite almost insurmountable obstacles— financial 
as well as political— he successfully raised the $300,- 
000,000 necessary to build the 2,000-mile pipeline 
through five provinces. At the completion of this 
project, when his contract terminated in 1959, a news- 
paper in Alberta said in an editorial: "When a gas 
pipeline across Canada was being proposed ... it was 
agreed . . . that the one man in all Canada who could 
bring the various interests together and build a line 
conforming to government policy was Mr. Tanner. . . . 
It is now a national institution, a major force in the 
economy of the country. . . . We move a vote of thanks 
for the work he has done for Canada." 

Today, as he assumes his responsibilities in the First 
Presidency under a new Prophet and President, the 
worldwide interests of the Church are truly blessed 
because of the broad background and experience, the 
executive capacities and business acumen, the deep 
spirituality and devotion to the Lord of President N. 
Eldon Tanner. o 



12 











Acting President of the Council of the Twelve 



• When Spencer Woolley Kimball, recently called and 
set apart as acting president of the Council of the 
Twelve, was but a youth, his father once said to a 
neighbor: "Brother, that boy Spencer is an exceptional 
boy. He always tries to mind me, whatever I ask him 
to do. I have dedicated him to be one of the mouth- 
pieces of the Lord— the Lord willing. You will see him 
someday as a great leader. I have dedicated him to 
the service of God, and he will become a mighty man 
in the Church." 

That early benediction has proved to be prophetic. 
Elder Kimball has indeed become a great mouthpiece 
for the Lord and a great leader. His general conference 
addresses have long been treasured by members of the 
Church for their probing counsel, easy-to-comprehend 
analogies, and refined and imaginative qualities of 
expression. 

Born in Salt Lake City on March 28, 1895, to Andrew 
and Olive Woolley Kimball, young Spencer spent most 
of his life in Arizona, where in 1898 his father was 
called to serve as president of the St. Joseph Stake in 
Arizona's Gila Valley. His father previously served 12 
years as president of the Indian Territory Mission, an 
experience that greatly influenced young Spencer's 



love for and desire to serve the Lamanite people. 

In his school days at Thatcher, Arizona, he was a 
class leader, honor student, and athlete. Then came a 
mission to the Central States, after which he attended 
the University of Arizona, where he prepared himself 
for a career in business. He worked first in banking 
and then as owner-manager of an insurance and 
realty company, and held many responsible positions 
in civic and professional organizations. 

In 1917 he married Camilla Eyring, and they became 
the parents of four children. Always willing to serve 
in the Church, he became stake clerk of St. Joseph 
Stake at the age of 22 and six years later was named 
a counselor in the stake presidency. In 1938 he was 
called as the first president of the newly organized 
Mt. Graham Stake. On July 8, 1943, he received the 
call to serve as a member of the Council of the Twelve. 

For almost 30 years he has visited and built up the 
Saints in the wards, stakes, branches, and missions. He 
is quick to analyze a problem and then, with love un- 
feigned, give the solution. He has carried a major role 
in financial matters for the Church and has helped to 
build the widely acclaimed Church Indian Program. 
He has become a "mighty man" in the Church. Q 



Era, March 1970 13 




• In the prophetic revelation re- 
ferred to as "my preface unto the 
book of my commandments, which 
I have given them to publish unto 
you, O inhabitants of the earth," 
the Lord called out in these words. 
"Hearken, O ye people of my 
church, saith the voice of him who 
dwells on high, and whose eyes are 
upon all men; yea, verily I say: 
Hearken ye people from afar; and 
ye that are upon the islands of the 
sea, listen together." (D&C 1:6, I.) 

These significant words fit the 
Asian countries: "Hearken, ye 
people from afar; and ye that are 
upon the islands of the sea, listen 
together." 

In the past two years I have made 
four visits to these Asian lands, and 
two earlier visits were made as a 
United States cabinet official. Many 
times I have had occasion to re- 
member these prophetic words. 

I thought of the words "ye people 
from afar" as we visited Thailand, 
Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, In- 
donesia, India, and other lands, and 
was told by our travel agent that 



we could return to Salt Lake City 
by traveling either east or west— 
"the distance is about the same." 
I thought of this as I presented the 
King of Thailand with a copy of 
"Joseph Smith's Testimony"— off the 
press the day before. It was the 
first Church publication in the Thai 
language. 

". . . and ye that are upon the is- 
lands of the sea, listen together." 
How often these words have come 
to mind in the past two years. In 
the island nation of Japan at a 
conference of over eight hundred 
youth, we listened to 125 personal 
testimonies in a four-and-a-half- 
hour testimony meeting that closed 
only to permit a scheduled public 
meeting to start, leaving 85 young 
people still wanting to add their 
testimonies. 

We were reminded of the words 
"islands of the sea" at the dedication 
last April of the land of Singapore, 
where we already have a congre- 
gation of some three hundred and 
a new church building underway. 

Again we thought of the words 



of the Lord, "islands of the sea," 
as we visited Taiwan and attended 
a district conference in Manila in 
the Philippines (a nation of some 
forty million people on seven thou- 
sand islands), with over two 
thousand in attendance. Again the 
words "islands of the sea" crowded 
in upon us as we were welcomed by 
friendly leaders to dedicate the 
land of fourteen thousand islands 
in Indonesia. 

A visit with the leader of Free 
China and the increasing member- 
ship of the Church in Hong Kong, 
Korea, and elsewhere show that 
these friendly, humble, courageous 
people are heeding the call of the 
Lord and are "listen [ing] together." 

There has never been a time until 
now when the Church has had the 
strength and the means to reach 
out effectively to the Asian nations. 
In the timetable of the Lord, the 
door is now open, and this is ap- 
parently the time for the work in 
Asia. 

Each visit has been productive 
and inspirational. The work is ex- 



14 



paneling and further expansion is 
in the offing. In each of the coun- 
tries the tremendous growth is an 
inspiration: this is where the people 
are— by the hundreds of millions— 
one-third of the population of the 
world. Of course, from the total 
standpoint of those many millions. 
we are just getting started. 

In Japan the Church is quite well 
established in two missions and sev- 
eral districts, with more soon to be 
organized. There are nearly four- 
teen million people in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Tokyo and 
Yokohama, where we have good 
leadership and a stable organiza- 
tion. A new stake will be organized 
there March 15. 

Japan now has over twelve thou- 
sand members of the Church. There 
are four thousand in Korea, over 
five thousand in the Philippines, 
some four thousand in Hong Kong, 
and more than that in Taiwan. A 
beginning has been made in Thai- 
land, Singapore, and Indonesia. We 
have strong congregations on Oki- 
nawa, and a nucleus of Vietnamese 
have come into the Church. Our 
servicemen in Korea laid the foun- 
dation for the Church there, and 
when peace comes to Vietnam we 
shall find the way prepared for the 



spreading of truth among that 
people. 

Mormon servicemen throughout 
these nations are laying the founda- 
tion for effective proselyting as 
they make friends and a few con- 
verts for the Church. On our recent 
tour we visited six installations in 
Thailand. We have three well- 
operating districts of servicemen in 
Vietnam. 

The land of Indonesia with 130 
million people was dedicated Octo- 
ber 26, 1969, for the preaching of 
the gospel. A new mission has been 
established with headquarters in 
Singapore. 

We are building up substantial 
congregations, and the foundation is 
being laid for a tremendous expan- 
sion of the work in Asia. Baptisms 
for 1969 were over 100 percent 
ahead of a year ago, and the trend 
continues upward. 

One of our great needs is build- 
ings. In the entire Philippine Mis- 
sion, we have only one building. 
Building sites are being purchased, 
and plans are going forward for 
the building of additional chapels 
in various parts of these areas. 

In our lifetime we shall see stakes 
and chapels, converts in great num- 
ber, local leadership with power 



and ability, and perhaps even a 
temple erected among these good 
people. 

The outlook is most encouraging. 
The Lord is blessing the new con- 
verts, the missionaries, the mission 
presidents. There is a spirit of 
optimism everywhere among these 
humble people, as men of promi- 
nence extend the hand of fellowship 
and cooperation. For example, one 
little branch of 50 members in 
Korea has five college professors. 

May God bless richly these teem- 
ing millions in the Asian countries— 
these choice "people from afar and 
ye that are upon the islands of the 1 
sea" as they "listen together" to the 
message of salvation from the hum- 
ble servants of God— local members 
and missionaries, all. 

For the Lord has declared 
through the Prophet Joseph Smith: 
"And the voice of warning shall be 
unto all people, by the mouths of 
my disciples, whom I have chosen 
in these last days. 

"And they shall go forth and none 
shall stay them, for I the Lord have 
commanded them." (D&C 1:4-5.) 

To this I bear humble witness, in 
deep gratitude for the Lord's bless- 
ing on our work in Asia and 
throughout the world. O 



The Mission Presidents 
in Asia Report 



Japan Mission 

By President Walter R. Bills 

• Geographically, our mission cov- 12 million people, and the northern skinned Ainu, some of whom have 

ers the northern half of the main island of Hokkaido, where live an blond hair and blue eyes, 

island of Honshu, which includes almost extinct people who were the We have 6,697 members and 17 

Tokyo, the world's largest city with original settlers of Japan— the fair- organized branches, with 17 prose- 



Era, March 1970 15 






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March 1970 Era 



lyting areas. Eight new chapels 
have been constructed— four in 
Tokyo and one each in Yokohama, 
Takasaki City, Sapporo, Asahigawa 
—and we own six other buildings 
that have been renovated into 
chapels. 

Throughout our mission, in order 
to attend church services, members 
usually have to travel from one-half 
hour to three hours each way by 
means of subways, buses, or trains. 
Meetings are correlated so we can 
have one meeting after another, 
usually taking most of the day. 
Baptism meetings are often held 



early Sunday morning, either in the 
ocean, outside areas, or homemade 
fonts. 

Our members include people 
from all walks of life: sales man- 
agers, laborers, doctors, dentists, in- 
dependent businessmen, and skilled 
laborers. At present we have 181 
missionaries: 159 elders and 22 
sisters, including 20 Japanese na- 
tionals. We baptized 281 persons 
in 1968 and 710 in 1969. In 1970 
we have set our goal for 2,500 
baptisms. 

The Church is becoming better 
known throughout the eastern half 



of our mission, primarily through 
our extensive Book of Mormon 
program. In the first six months of 
1969 we sold 6,326 copies, and in 
the last six months, 48,147 copies. 
Our hopes for 1970 are to place 
between 200,000 and 300,000 copies. 
We hope to have six information 
centers showing the Japanese ver- 
sion of Mans Search for Happiness. 
In October 1970 we plan to charter 
two planes directly from Tokyo to 
Salt Lake City for general confer- 
ence. We look forward to a great 
year, particularly as we prepare for 
Expo '70. O 



Japan- Okinawa Mission 



Bv President Edward Y. Okazaki 



• Our mission serves about half of 
the land area and population of 
Japan, or half of the island of Hon- 
shu and all of Shikoku, Kyushu, 
and Okinawa. There are about 50 
million Japanese in our area. (The 
total population of Japan is 100 
million. ) 

Interestingly, there seems to be 
evidence in Japanese customs and 
national religion that the truths of 
the gospel were once planted in 
Japan: (1) in Shinto they have a 
ceremony in which they baptize 
for their dead; (2) when someone 
dies he loses his earthly name and 
the priest gives him a heavenly 
name; (3) they believe they must 
do "work" for their ancestors; (4) 
Japanese believe in the patriarchal 
order: (5) they believe in cove- 
nants, that sacrifice brings forth the 
blessings of heaven; (6) the story 
told of the creation of Japan is 
similar to the story of the creation 
of the earth. 

In our mission we have 5,281 
members, with 32 branches, six 
proselyting districts, and two ser- 



vicemen's districts. Four chapels 
have been constructed for us; else- 
where we rent buildings. We 
presently have 191 missionaries and 
18 part-time missionaries. In 1969 
we baptized 613 into the Church. 

We are well received today 
throughout Japan, and our pros- 
pects for 1970 are high, particularly 
because of Expo '70, the first world 
exposition to be held in Asia, and 
the site, Osaka, is in our mission. 

The site of the Church's pavilion 
is outstanding. One Expo official 
remarked, "How did you get such a 
choice location? You must have had 
some excellent connections." We 
did! The Lord helped us! 

The pavilion is located across the 
street from the Japan pavilion; it 
is near the largest man-made lake, 
where people will rest and cool 
themselves; and it is one block from 
the largest public plaza where the 
biggest and best free shows will be 
held. We are planning to host be- 
tween five and eight million persons 
in the six months. 

The First Presidency approved 



remaking the movie Man's Search 
for Happiness, with Japanese actors 
and scenery. In the meantime, we 
are busily trying to rearrange the 
missionary lesson plan so it will be 
more culturally inviting to the 
Japanese people. We are pleased 
with the results of the new language 
training program that is designed 
to help missionaries learn to com- 
municate in six months. 

During the year the Saints will 
be chartering a plane to the Hawaii 
Temple for endowments, sealings, 
and patriarchal blessings. 

Our baptisms are expected to soar 
from an average of nineteen per 
month to 200 per month in the near 
future. 

I feel as one does when he 
thrills to the catching of a big wave 
with his surfboard. When Expo 
opens, our pavilion will be the 
crest that will propel us to break- 
neck speed. We are paddling hard 
now to be sure that we catch the 
crest of this big wave. We want to 
go sailing along, and we can taste 
the salt spray in our mouths. O 



Era, March 1970 17 



Philippine Mission 



• The only nation within the 
Philippine Mission is the 7,000- 
island Republic of the Philippines. 
We have branches and missionaries 
scattered from Laoag on the large 
northern island of Luzon to General 
Santos City in southern Mindanao. 

The missionaries come in contact 
with all types of dialects— about 37 
major dialects and over 60 minor 
dialects. 

But if any single language could 
be said to be universal, it would be 
English. Hence, the medium of in- 



By President Paul S. Rose 

struction for the missionaries is 
English. 

We have about 5,199 members 
(1,351 baptisms in 1969) in 20 
branches and 19 groups. Our 179 
missionaries are laboring in 35 
cities. We have one chapel in the 
Philippines and two more soon to 
begin construction. 

The Filipino people are probably 
the most kind and hospitable people 
on earth. They are always helpful 
and smile and wave when ap- 
proached. Since World War II the 



Filipinos have nicknamed all Ameri- 
cans Joe— especially the mission- 
aries. The little children are the 
delight of the missionaries and 
make many hot days of tracting en- 
joyable. They follow the mission- 
aries around— sometimes as many 
as 50 may be counted. 

Our missionaries agree that it is 
now easier to place copies of the 
Book of Mormon and to find people 
who are interested in the gospel 
than it was a year ago, and our 
prospects for 1970 are good. O 



Hong Kong-Taiwan Mission 



• Our mission covers the island 
of Taiwan and the colony of Hong 
Kong, with about 14 million people 
on Taiwan and 4.5 million in Hong 
Kong. The mission has 8,673 
Church members divided into 31 
branches and three districts. We 
have 148 missionaries. Upon arrival, 
the missionaries are assigned to 
learn either Cantonese, which is 
spoken in Hong Kong, or Mandarin, 
which is used in Taiwan. Even 
though both are Chinese dialects, 
they are sufficiently different that 
missionaries cannot be transferred 
back and forth between Hong Kong 
and Taiwan. 

At present we have three con- 
ventional Church chapels, four 
condominiums in which we own a 
floor that has been converted to a 



By President W. Brent Hardy 

chapel (hence, we go to Church 
in an elevator), one converted pri- 
vate mansion, and one small one- 
room chapel; we also rent 15 branch 
buildings. The gospel is being re- 
ceived well by the people in both 
areas of the mission, and we expect 
the number of baptisms in 1970 to 
be double that of 1969. The sta- 
ture of the Church here is good. 

Taiwan, formerly called Formosa, 
has a population of 14 million, of 
whom 4,500 are Church members. 
The economic growth is impressive 
—since 1964 the national yearly in- 
come has doubled. Unemployment 
is almost unknown, and modern 
factories dot the countryside. Sev- 
enty-eight missionaries are assigned 
to Taiwan. 

The Church organization in Tai- 



wan is somewhat unusual, for al- 
though it is part of the mission, it 
resembles a stake. We have a 
presidency and district council to 
run the affairs of the Church there, 
to prepare the leadership for the 
day when it may become the first 
Chinese stake. 

Hong Kong, on the southeast 
coast of China, adjoins the Com- 
munist-held province of Canton. It 
has an area of 398.5 square miles. 
The Church is progressing at a fast 
rate there. 

Our primary objective during the 
coming year will be to strengthen 
the local leadership of the Church. 
We believe that the Saints are ma- 
turing and preparing to become a 
great source of strength for other 
areas in Asia. O 



18 



Southeast Asia Mission 



• Our mission came into being on 
November 1, 1969, with head- 
quarters at Singapore. The South- 
ern Far East Mission became the 
Hong Kong-Taiwan and the South- 
east Asia missions. We comprise 
the peninsula of Indochina— Viet- 
nam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia— 
the island republic of Singapore, 
Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, 
the Indian sub-continent, Ceylon, 
and Pakistan. Approximately 975 
million people live within these 
nations. 

At the present time missionary 
work is progressing in South Viet- 
nam, Thailand, Singapore, and 
Indonesia. On January 5, 1970, six 
elders began work in Djakarta, 



By President G. Carlos Smith, Jr. 

where we have several Indonesian 
members and about twenty Cau- 
casian members. 

Two years ago six elders were 
sent to Singapore to open up the 
work here. There are now 46 elders 
in Singapore, and the membership 
of the Singapore Branch is 183. 

In Bangkok, Thailand, we have 
an English-speaking branch of 225 
members and a Thai group of 35. 
In Korat, Thailand, we have an- 
other Thai group of about 30 
members. In Thailand 30 mission- 
aries are proselyting in four cities. 

In Vietnam we have three dis- 
tricts presided over by servicemen. 
We have groups rather than 
branches among the servicemen. 



However, in Saigon we do have one 
branch of 90 members, composed 
mostly of Vietnamese and some 
career U.S. servicemen. 

Proselyting is done primarily in 
English in Singapore and Vietnam, 
and in the Thai language in Thai- 
land; in Indonesia most of our 
proselyting will be done in Indo- 
nesian. 

As yet we have no church build- 
ings, but we have acquired property 
in Bangkok for a chapel that we 
hope will be built within a year. 

The Asian people are wonderful 
and devoted. This is true in each 
of the nations in our mission— and 
the Lord has blessed us in making 
some wonderful friends. O 






By President Robert H. Slover 



• At the present, our mission covers 
the Republic of South Korea, a 
land of 31 million people, in which 
we have about 4,000 members, 
excluding the Latter-day Saint 
servicemen and the American gov- 
ernment personnel. Divided into 
four districts, the mission contains 
16 branches, with about 100 mis- 
sionaries. 

We now have three chapels- 
two in Seoul and one in Pusan— that 
are great helps and that serve as 
landmarks for investigators and 
others. Our baptism total last year 
was 450. 



The image of the Church in 
Korea is very good, although the 
Church has only been here 12 
years. The mission has been estab- 
lished for seven years. Even so, our 
name has spread throughout Korea 
through excellent press treatment 
and coverage, large exhibits about 
the Church in major cities, and the 
Tabernacle Choir weekly broad- 
casts carried on a Seoul radio 
station. 

Korea is one of the most pro- 
American countries in the world, 
and Americans and seemingly any- 
thing American are much loved. 



This sometimes includes the urge to 
imitate American religions. Korea 
has the highest percentage of Chris- 
tians of any Asian country. The 
people, however, are highly nation- 
alistic, and the economy is leaping 
forward in great steps. 

Our challenge in the Church is 
to build a strong base in the priest- 
hood. We already have many re- 
markably strong and well-versed 
members of the Church here. Our 
future is very great in Korea; in 
fact, we look forward to a stake and 
even talk of a temple in our distant 
hopes. O 



Era, March 1970 19 





The accompanying photographs indicate the 
strength and vigor of the Church in Japan 
(beginning at upper left corner and going 
clockwise): young Japanese elder addresses 
congregation at sacrament meeting; a recent 
convert to the Church is ordained to an office 
in the priesthood; one of the chapels in Japan; 
genealogical study group; family home eve- 
ning presentation; Relief Society sisters ac- 
quire new abilities; missionaries hold side- 
walk discussions; Relief Society sisters study- 
ing the gospel; and a winning entry in an 
MIA festival. 



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Baptism of Infants • Communism • 
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Chapels in the Japan 
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The Hi story 
of the Church in Japan 



• March 1970 marks one of the 
most momentous months in the his- 
tory of The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints in Japan. On 
Friday, March 13, the Mormon 
Pavilion at Expo 70 in Osaka will 
be dedicated. Two days later, on 
March 15, the first stake of the 
Church in Asia will be organized 
in Tokyo. 

These two events are all the more 
remarkable when one considers 
the struggle for recognition that 
the Church has experienced in the 
69 years since the first mission- 
aries set foot on Japanese soil. Ac- 
tually, the history of the Church 
in Japan spans two periods of time : 
from 1901 to 1924, when the mis- 
sionaries were withdrawn because 
of strong anti- American feeling, and 
from 1948 to the present. Between 



By Eleanor Knowles 

Editorial Associate 

these two periods perhaps the most 
devastating war in the history of 
the world left much of Japan in 
charred rubble. Yet from the depths 
of that war the nation itself has 
soared to become one of the great 
industrial giants of the world, and 
the gospel has caught fire in the 
hearts of many thousands of per- 
sons. During the first period of 23 
years, only 166 persons were bap- 
tized in the land of the rising sun. 
Today that many people are some- 
times baptized in a single month; 
the Church membership in Japan 
is now 12,500, and it is expected 
that as many as 4,000 may be bap- 
tized in 1970, while the seeds will 
be planted in the hearts of tens 
of thousands of other persons. 

Truly the way has been opened 
up at last for the fulfillment of a 



prophecy made in 1903, when 
Elder Heber J. Grant of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve (and later 
seventh President of the Church) 
stated in general conference : "There 
will be a great and important 
labor accomplished in that land." 
During the last half of the nine- 
teenth century, while the Church 
was becoming firmly established in 
the United States and Europe, 
great changes were taking place 
in Japan that were to lay the 
foundation for the introduction of 
the gospel there. Under the reign 
of Emperor Meiji, Japan had 
emerged from centuries of isola- 
tionism and traditionalism and had 
begun to trade with western nations 
and to send delegations to other 
nations to study and gain technical 
knowledge. Thus, it is not surpris- 



Era, March 1970 23 



ing that many Christian sects had 
cast their eyes toward Japan and 
were beginning to establish mis- 
sions there. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints had been watch- 
ing the "new Japan" with great in- 
terest, anticipating the time when 
the restored gospel might be taken 
to the people there. In 1895 an 
editorial in the Contributor (fore- 



" Nothing will hinder 
the rapid advancement 
of this oriental nation " 



runner of The Improvement Era) 
stated: "The authorities of the 
Church have of late had their minds 
more or less exercised in regard to 
Japan as a country in which the 
Gospel might at an early day be 
profitably preached. The recent 
Chinese-Japanese war has shown 
among other unexpected things that 
Japan has made wonderful strides 
within a few years in the arts of 
civilization. . . . Nothing will hinder 
the rapid advancement of this 
oriental nation, unless pride and 
conceit at their success in the late 
war shall ruin the people." 

Inquiry was made of the Japanese 
Consul at San Francisco, and he 
responded that he felt the Church 
would be warmly received in Japan. 
Thus, on February 14, 1901, the 
Council of the Twelve agreed that 
the gospel be taken to the Japanese 
people, and Elder Heber J. Grant 
was named to lead the missionary 
efforts in Japan. Selected to accom- 
pany him were Louis A. Kelsch, 
who had just completed five years 
as president of the Northern States 
Mission; Horace S. Ensign, recently 



returned from 33 months of mission- 
ary service in Colorado; and Alma 
O. Taylor, who, although he was 
just a youth of 18 at that time, 
would become a great missionary to 
the Japanese people and would re- 
main in Japan nine years. 

The four emissaries arrived at 
Yokohama in August 1901. As 
Elder Grant was to write home, "On 
the shore hundreds of rikishas were 
waiting with their proprietors 
hawking their services to passen- 
gers. . . . The four missionaries 
moved among the little, tanned, 
strangely-clad natives. . . . Here 
suddenly they were cast into a 
new world— the people, language, 
customs, dress, buildings, streets 
were all so different." 

One of the first things Elder 
Grant did was to send copies of 
"An Address to the Great and 
Progressive Nation of Japan" to 
leading newspapers, in which he 
stated: "As an Apostle and minister 
of the Most High God, I salute you 
and invite you to consider the im- 
portant message we bear. ... By 
His authority we turn the divine 
key which opens the kingdom 
of heaven to the inhabitants of 
Japan. ..." 

On September 1, 1901, the four 
missionaries went to a little hill 
overlooking Yokohoma, and there 
Elder Grant offered prayer, dedi- 
cating the land "for the proclama- 
tion of the Truth and for the 
bringing to pass of the purposes of 
the Lord concerning the gathering 
of Israel and the establishment of 
righteousness upon the earth." 

The missionaries did not find the 
warm welcome in Japan they had 
been promised; in fact, in many 
areas they found great opposition, 
particularly among some of the 
Christian sects. And since they did 
not speak Japanese, and few of the 
Japanese people could speak or 
understand English, they found 
their work hampered. However, a 



few persons did come forth to help 
open the way for them to find suit- 
able housing, learn the language, 
translate the Book of Mormon and 
other Church tracts, and seek out 
the honest investigator. Although 
by the time Elder Grant returned to 
Salt Lake City at the end of two 
years there had been few baptisms, 
the elders had made significant 
progress in translating Church ma- 
terials, and they had learned the 
language sufficiently well to be able 
to communicate with the Japanese 
people. 

Elder Taylor, who became presi- 
dent of the mission on July 4, 1905, 
was given the difficult assignment 
of translating the Book of Mormon 
into Japanese. When he had left 
for Japan in 1901, he had been told 
in a blessing that he might "easily 
learn the language; that the gift of 
tongues may rest upon you in such 
a degree that the language may be- 
come easy to you; that your memory 
may be strong to remember, and 
that you may know how to con- 
struct that language, so foreign to 
those that you have heard here." 
The first translation was begun in 
1904 and completed two years 
later, but it had to go through 
several revisions and translations 
before an acceptable version was 
ready to be printed in 1909. With 
this missionary tool available at 
last, the work of the missionaries 
was greatly enhanced. (Today the 
Book of Mormon is available in a 
leatherbound edition in Japan, with 
beautiful four-color illustrations, at 
very nominal cost. During 1969 
missionaries of the Japan Mission 
sold more than 55,000 copies, and 
in 1970 they expect to sell another 
200,000 copies. ) 

The first years of the mission re- 
sulted in few conversions, and some 
of those who did embrace the gos- 
pel later left the Church. By 1924, 
when anti-American feeling and 
persecution had become so great 



24 



that President Grant directed that 
the mission be closed, the member- 
ship stood at less than 100 persons. 
Elder Ernest B. Woodward, one of 
the last missionaries to leave the 
country, wrote: "Attendance at our 
meetings dropped and continued to 
do so; only a few of the faithful 
members ever showed up around 
the Church. Wherever we went we 
were greeted by stony silence or 
with insults. ... As time went on, 
the bitterness became more intense 
and the attendance at meetings 
smaller. In our tracting we met 
with opposition and insult on every 
hand. . . . The lady missionaries 
never left the mission home without 
escort for it was not deemed safe." 

And so the missionaries were 
withdrawn. The few faithful Saints 
who remained in Japan struggled 
to meet together under trying con- 
ditions, but in essence the Church 
in Japan would lie dormant for 
some 24 years. 

On November 28, 1936, the 
Deseret News carried a news item 
that was to have far-reaching effect 
among the Japanese people: "An- 
nouncement was made this week 
from the office of the First Presi- 
dency that the Church would re- 
open its Japanese Mission." 

Mission headquarters were to be 
in Hawaii, where more than half 
the people were then Japanese. A 
few Saints who had moved there 
from Japan plus converts in the 
Hawaii Mission provided a nucleus 
for the mission, which was reestab- 
lished in the spring of 1937, with 
Hilton A. Robertson (who had di- 
rected the closing of the mission in 
Japan in 1924 ) as president. Within 
a year four districts had been estab- 
lished on the island of Oahu and 
missionary work was begun on the 
islands of Hawaii and Kauai. 

In Hawaii the gospel found some 
of its most receptive converts among 
the younger Japanese, who, Presi- 
dent Robertson reported, "are not 



Era, March 1970 25 




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satisfied with the religious philos- 
ophy of their parents." Even during 
World War II, when full-time mis- 
sionaries had to be withdrawn from 
the islands, the missionary work 
was continued by local members. 
As a result, when it finally became 
possible for the mission to be re- 
opened in Japan, there was strong 
leadership in the branches in Ha- 
waii, and a number of young adults 
were prepared to return to their 
homeland as proselyting mission- 
aries for the Church. 

With the end of the war in Japan 
in 1945 came the U.S. occupation 
forces, which included hundreds of 
Latter-day Saints. These service- 
men included many returned mis- 
sionaries, as well as Nisei members 
( second-generation Americans of 
Japanese ancestry), who set about 
to teach the gospel to their fellow 
servicemen and to the native Japa- 
nese. 

(An interesting sidelight is that 
one young man who was taught 
the gospel while in the service, and 
who was baptized in Tokyo Bay in 
1952, later became a member of the 
First Council of the Seventy— Elder 
Hartman Rector, Jr.) 

In 1948, Edward L. Clissold of 
Honolulu, who had been in Japan 
in 1945 with the occupation forces, 
was called by the First Presidency 
to reopen the mission in Japan (it 
was designated the Northern Far 
East Mission) with headquarters 
in Tokyo. The first missionaries as- 
signed to Japan included several 
of the young people from Hawaii, 
and their knowledge of the Japanese 
language helped greatly in break- 
ing down some of the barriers that 
had hampered missionaries in the 
earlier period. The new mission- 
aries set about gathering up the 
Saints who had remained faithful 
during the long war years, and 
these members, plus those taught 
by the servicemen, became the 
nucleus for the branches in Japan. 



26 



What a different story the new 
missionaries had to tell, compared 
with the experiences of those mis- 
sionaries in the first period. Then 
it had been a story of despair, re- 
jection, struggle against almost in- 
surmountable obstacles. Now it 
was a story of a people who were 
more friendly, more willing to lis- 
ten, more open to reception of the 
Spirit and the truths of the gospel. 
Although the Church's growth in 
Japan after 1948 was not, perhaps, 
as dramatic as in some of the other 
missions of the Church, it was con- 
sistent, and with the growth in the 
membership have come the building 
of new chapels and the establish- 
ment of the full program of the 
Church, including the auxiliary 
programs, the family home evening, 
home teaching, temple work (sev- 
eral excursions have been made to 
Hawaii, and additional temple ex- 
cursions are planned this year, in- 
cluding one to Salt Lake City ) , and 
other blessings of the gospel. The 
Unified Magazine of the Church is 
now printed in Japanese, as are 
many of the auxiliary manuals and 
other teaching helps. 

The Church in Japan is now 
firmly established, after a struggle 
that spans seven decades. Today 
there are two missions— the Japan 
Mission, with headquarters in 
Tokyo, and the Japan-Okinawa Mis- 
sion, in Kobe— and each mission is 
this year experiencing greater 
growth than the one combined mis- 
sion did just five years ago. There 
is a vast percentage of Japan's 
120,000,000 population who have 
not yet had an opportunity to hear 
the gospel's message, but with the 
establishment of the new stake, the 
highly successful Book of Mormon 
sales campaign, the Mormon Pa- 
vilion at Expo '70, and the lives and 
example of faithful members setting 
the pace, the Lord is truly blessing 
the Church in Japan, the land of 
the rising sun. O 




Far left: Joseph Mc- 
Phie, former presi- 
dent of Vietnam 
Southern District, 
leaves fay helicopter 
to visit outlying ser- 
vicemen's groups. 
Other photos show 
servicemen attending 
a district conference 
in Vietnam and leav- 
ing by army truck to 
return to battlefront. 



The Influence of Latter-day 

^^...j*^ ^*"' ^&/,*mmL. ^mmm^ ^R.. ^^/ i^^, , jfi F ^"fc^-' -Mm... ^m .SSL. ^t__- ^ik,- JR&8L. JML Jam. ^t*— ' JMBk 3BBKL JHK.vJ9k.JBk. ..**■.. . j£m%.9^~JSr JB9L ^Sf^BB-' 



• Recently the commander of a 
troop of helicopter gunships, who 
was a high priest on his second 
tour of duty in Vietnam, wrote: 
". . . possibly due to the influ- 
ence of our conference, I feel more 
than ever a kinship to these people, 
both friend and enemy. I hope the 
day may come when I can bring 
them life in the gospel truths, rather 
than death." This comment con- 
veys the spirit and feeling of our 
Mormon servicemen in Asia. 

From the icy mountains of Korea, 
through Japan, Okinawa, Taiwan, 
the Philippines, to the steamy jun- 
gles of Vietnam and the broad ex- 
panse of Thailand, hundreds of 
thousands of American servicemen 
are stationed. In their midst are 
some 6,000 to 7,000 Latter-day Saint 
servicemen. 

Their contribution historically 
has been that of a forerunner, an 
Elias, for the establishment of or- 
ganized branches, districts, and 
missions. The Church in Japan 
blossomed only after World War II 
brought, over the years, thousands 
of Latter-day Saint servicemen and 
their families to that land. 



By President W. Brent Hardy 

Hong Kong— Taiwan Mission 

This same sequence of events 
has been repeated in Korea. Latter- 
day Saint servicemen during the 
Korea War brought the light of the 
gospel into the lives of enthusiastic 
and influential men. The way was 
thus prepared for the establishment 
of a successful mission in that an- 
cient land. A new mission, the 
Philippine Mission, now one of the 
most rapidly growing missions in 
the Church, came similarly into 
being. In Taiwan a few scattered 
Latter-day Saint servicemen pro- 
vided help, encouragement, faith, 
and prayers to assist the work there 
in its beginning. 

Throughout Asia theirs has been 
a dual role. In the beginning, it was 
preparation; as stability came, they 
provided experience and leadership 
to assist new local leaders. In Thai- 
land, at the request of a service- 
men's group, the missionaries have 
been sent to labor there. 

The same pattern seems to be 
emerging from the ashes of Viet- 
nam. Though the servicemen's 
contact with the Vietnamese is very 
limited for security reasons, their 
influence is still felt. In Saigon a 



branch of the Church has about 60 
Vietnamese and 40 American mem- 
bers, with more being added each 
month. As the Vietnam conflict 
moderates, freedom of association 
with the Vietnamese people will in- 
crease and with it the opportunity 
to introduce the message of Christ. 
Materials are now being prepared 
in the Vietnamese language to as- 
sist in this effort. 

Nor is the influence of the Latter- 
day Saint servicemen in Asia lim- 
ited to the people of these lands. 
Military service and its environ- 
ment put members of the Church 
face to face with some hard facts 
and choices. The influences of home 
and family become remote voices 
of the past. The men have to shake 
off complacent lethargy of com- 
fortable "hometown Mormonism" 
and choose whom they will serve. 
Thankfully, for many this crisis in 
their spiritual lives is met with 
growing testimonies and vigorous 
desire to improve. When they find 
themselves and the meaning of the 
gospel, they have a desire to share 
it with others. They see themselves 
in a new perspective. Their lives 



Era, March 1970 27 



are brought into focus. Their goals 
are defined. Though the situation 
in which they find themselves may 
be unpleasant and their duties 
cruel, they emerge with a clear 
resolve to be more fully what they 
are, sons of God. 

Not a meeting is held in Vietnam 
without someone's expressing ap- 
preciation and love for his wife and 
family and at the same time dedi- 
cating himself to be a better hus- 
band and father. The boy who had 
been a "50 percent" Mormon finds 
new meaning in his Church mem- 
bership and begins to save for a 
mission when his service is over. 
The transgressor repents and again 
permits the Lord to bless him. 
Someone who loses a buddy in bat- 
tle sees his life in new perspective 
and resolves to make it more mean- 
ingful. The war is ugly, wasteful, 
and unfortunate, but the sorrow it 
causes is somewhat softened by the 
blessing of seeing better men, with 
spiritual strength and determina- 
tion, rise out of the moral and 
physical rubble it causes. 

The Church among the service- 
men is organized into branches 
where possible and groups else- 
where. In Vietnam alone there are 
60 to 70 organized groups, divided 
into three districts. Each district 
is presided over by a district presi- 
dency and district council. It is a 
testimony to see the caliber of men 
the Lord has provided for this dis- 
trict leadership: former bishops, 
members of stake presidencies, 
members of bishoprics, high coun- 
cilors, high priests, and others of 
great experience. Regular visits to 
groups are made by district coun- 
cilmen. Home teaching is done 
where possible, and an extra visit 
is made in the event of enemy at- 
tack. Priesthood advancements are 
taken care of regularly and temple 
recommends issued. For nearly 
every Latter-day Saint serviceman 
assigned to Asia, there is an oppor- 



tunity to be active and of service. 

A discussion of the Latter-day 
Saint servicemen in Asia would not 
be complete without reference to 
their contribution to the physical 
growth of the Church. Throughout 
Asia chapels have been built and 
are being built with the financial 
assistance and physical labor of the 
servicemen. Through their contri- 
butions they are helping people 
who have very limited financial re- 
sources to enjoy the benefits of 
chapel facilities. In Vietnam many 
of the servicemen give one month's 
combat pay to the building and 
missionary fund for Vietnam. This 
same generosity is helping build 
facilities in all the missions in Asia. 
In these material ways and the un- 



numbered thousands of personal 
acts of charity, the Latter-day Saint 
servicemen contribute to the ma- 
terial well-being of the Church at 
present and in preparation for the 
future. 

Only those who have sat in con- 
ference with four or five hundred 
Latter-day Saint servicemen fresh 
from the dirt, wet, and misery of 
jungle war and heard them sing, 
"And should we die before our 
journey's through . . . ," can feel 
the richness of souls and the depth 
of conviction and source of com- 
fort that living the gospel brings. 
A witness of their testimony is 
borne as you hear these great men 
of the Church sing, ". . . All is well, 
all is well." O 



Below are scenes from Man's Search for Happiness, specially filmed in Japan with 
Japanese actors, which will be featured at the Mormon Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, 
Japan. The film answers the questions of everyman's search: Who am I? How did I 
come to be? Where did I come from? After death, what? It points out that the gospel 
of Jesus Christ is the way to peace and the fullness of everlasting life. 




28 




One of several 

• 

popular Japanese 
youth choruses. 

A Japanese 
Latter-day Saint 
family visits a 
national monument. 



Era, March 1970 29 



Scenes from the 
Hong Kong-Taiwan 
Mission: Top photo- 
graphs, members 
perform in program 
at a branch party 
in Taiwan. Bottom, 
local missionary 
called from Hong 
Kong passes out 
Christmas cards on 
street corner in Tai- 
wan (right), while 
Sister Huang, a dis- 
trict missionary, waits 
at the Kao Hsiung 
train station for her 
new companion (far 
right). 




30 Era, March 1970 



NOW AVAILABLE in response to many requests - 
a re-issue of one of the great books of the Church: 



twelfth edition of 



GOSPEL STANDARDS 

by President Heber J. Grant 

A whole new generation of Church members will welcome the inspired forcefulness and understand- 
able wisdom of the seventh President of the Church in this vitally significant Church work. 



Typical Excerpts 


"Now 1 want to make all mistakes on the side 


"The Lord is no respecter of persons, and will 


of mercy. But once in a while 1 want to see 


give success to all who work for it. If 1 can 


justice get just a little bit of a chance among 


only impress upon the minds of the youth of 


people." 


Z+on the eloquence, the inexpressible eloquence 


— Heber J. Grant 


of work, 1 shall feel fully repaid." 




— Heber J. Grant 




"Gospel themes are elaborated; practical 
questions of life discussed; wise suggestions 
made; and more than forty of President 
Grant's favorite spell-binding stories are re- 
told. It will hold the interest of all to the last, 
and will come to occupy an important place 
in Mormon literature." 

Richard L. Evans 



Price is only $4.95 postpaid 

Order from 




79S.State • Salt Lake City, Utah 841 11 

And at book dealers everywhere. 

An Improvement Era publication 



TheBcginnings in 
THAIIAM) 



• On November 2, 1966, Elder 
Gordon B. Hinckley of the Council 
of the Twelve and a small group 
of Latter-day Saints from the Bang- 
kok Branch assembled in Bangkok's 
Lumpini Park for the dedication of 
Thailand for the preaching of the 
gospel. Subsequently, there fol- 
lowed a more than two-year strug- 
gle through the seemingly endless 
channels of Asian bureaucracy be- 
fore the Church was incorporated in 
Thailand November 1, 1967. 

Upon receiving approval from the 
First Presidency, and under the 
direction of President Keith B. 
Garner of the Southern Far East 
Mission, a vanguard of six elders 
arrived in Bangkok on February 2, 
1968. A home to serve as their 
living quarters was secured in the 
Bangkaoi section on Sukumvit 
Road. 

On Monday, February 5, Presi- 
dent Garner returned to the mis- 
sion headquarters in Hong Kong. 
His instructions to the missionaries 
were short and explicit: learn the 
Thai language and arrange to 
have the six missionary discussions 
translated. 

At the date of their arrival, there 



By Craig G. Christensen 

was no Church literature in the 
Thai language; not even the name 
of the Church had been translated. 
The elders relied on fasting and 
prayer for guidance. Within one 
week, a translator for the six dis- 
cussions had been employed, and a 
language school with Thai instruc- 
tors had been located. They began 
three weeks of intensive instruction 
in the Thai language. In the 
evenings, time was utilized by 
tracting in the farang (foreign) 
areas of Bangkok. The reactions of 
most Occidentals to the undertaking 
ranged from scorn to pity. "Your 
failure is assured," the elders were 
told. "The Thais have a religion 
that is perfectly suited to them. 
Don't try to change a contented 
people with your western religion." 
The thrust of these opinions was 
amplified when it was learned that 
the first Protestant missionaries in 
Thailand had labored 37 years be- 
fore baptizing their first convert. 
Only in recent years had the entire 
Bible been available in a Thai 
translation, and it had many flaws. 
According to estimates, 97 percent 
of Thailand is Buddhist, with the 
remaining portion divided among 



the Islam, Catholic, Protestant, and 
Hindu faiths. 

The first crucial weeks were ac- 
companied with a special blessing: 
a young Thai man, Anan Eldredge, 
who had been adopted by an Amer- 
ican Latter-day Saint family living 
in Thailand and had been subse- 
quently baptized, was sent to live 
with the elders to help them learn 
the language. With his help, they 
were able to conduct the first 
Latter-day Saint services entirely in 
the Thai language in a mere five 
weeks after their arrival in Thai- 
land. Six Thai investigators were 
present. (At this writing, Brother 
Anan, now an elder, is serving as 
the first full-time native missionary 
in Thailand.) 

The pressures and frustrations of 
the initial weeks were made more 
endurable through the meeting of a 
very special individual. Dr. Gordon 
M. Flammer of the Bangkok Branch 
introduced the elders to an intelli- 
gent Thai gentleman and his wife: 



Craig C. Christensen, former South- 
ern Far East (Taiwan and Thailand) 
missionary, is presently pursuing a 
degree in history and Chinese at 
Brigham Young University. 



32 



Boonepluke and Rabiab Klaophin. May 15, 1968. It was the first bap- family were then living in Korat, 

Mr. Boonepluke (Thais use the tismal service held by the mission- and he was again invaluable in 

first name almost exclusively) was aries in Thailand. (When I left starting the work there. Korat, the 

employed at the school where Dr. Thailand nine months later, he was third largest city in Thailand, has a 

Flammer taught and had expressed serving as a counselor in the Bang- population of about 75,000. From 

interest in the Church because of kok Thai Branch. ) the beginning, there was a special 

his observation of the habits and It is obviously impossible to give spirit there, and the hand of the 

characteristics of its members. a detailed account of the conversion Lord was evident countless times in 

Mr. Boonepluke had taught him- of each member, but there are two the locating and conversion of those 
self enough English to communicate others whose roles in the establish- souls whom he had prepared to re- 
on a fairly technical level, so the ment of the Church in Thailand ceive the gospel. Within a short 
missionaries began to teach him the should be noted. Brother Prasong time the Korat group had about 
six discussions in English, and he in Sriveses, who was employed by the thirty regular attendees, and bap- 
turn would translate for his wife. Thailand District president, Eugene tismal services were held monthly. 
These meetings were very spiritual P. Till, listened to the six discus- The converts were from all walks of 
experiences. His desire to learn the sions in "pidgin" Thai (as then life: students, military men, com- 
gospel was intense. He literally spoken by the elders ) with a degree mon laborers, and two former 
memorized each point in the dis- of comprehension that can only be Protestant ministers. The circum- 
cussions and made certain he had explained as a gift of the Holy stances of their conversions were 
thoroughly digested the material Ghost. Brother Prasong was bap- almost without exception dramatic 
in each lesson before proceeding tized on June 12, 1968, and the fol- and miraculous. In a few months 
to the next. He understood the sig- lowing week he was ordained a it was necessary to find a larger 
nificance of prayer and made cer- priest and set apart as an assistant meeting place. 
tain that his family had daily in the Sunday School superin- The elders have found it to be a 
prayers. He became a regular tendency. choice experience to work among 
attendee at the weekly meetings A few weeks after arriving in the Thais. Their warmth and sin- 
held in the elders' home. Atten- Bangkok, two of the elders met an cerity are unmatched anywhere, 
dance meant a one-hour motorcycle extraordinary lady, Mrs. Srilak- They are quick to make friends and 
ride with his wife and two children sanaa. Of noble ancestry, she was are generally humble and content 
through the crowded streets of well educated and had traveled with their lives. They are quick to 
Bangkok. His punctuality in a land extensively. She consented to listen smile and slow to anger. One who 
where time is considered only in to the discussions, and through is acquainted with the Polynesian 
terms of "early" and "late" was prayer and study of the Book of temperament would not find it dif- 
truly commendable. At length, Mormon, she gained a fervent testi- ficult to understand the Thais. 
Brother Boonepluke and his wife mony; she and her two daughters However, the Thais are tolerant of 
were challenged to be baptized. were baptized July 4, 1968. Since religions to an unnerving degree, 

Space does not allow a discus- that time, her eloquence and strong thus rendering attempts to teach 

sion of the ramifications of the Thai testimony have been invaluable in any one set of beliefs very often 

social structure. Suffice it to say the conversion of other Thai unfruitful. This particular diffi- 

that a Thai man who rejects people. She has served the Church culty will likely be unsettling to 

Buddhism is looked upon as some- as a teacher of an investigators' missionaries in Thailand for years to 

what of a traitor, because Buddhism class and has assisted in translation come. 

and the Thai government are in- work. In July 1968, President Garner 

extricably related historically, cere- In June 1968 President Garner was released, and W. Brent Hardy 

monially, and philosophically. Such was in Bangkok in conjunction with was set apart as the new mission 

a person becomes a social outcast a district conference and was in- president. Under his direction, the 

in many circles and is almost certain spired to send two elders to the elders then laboring in Bangkok 

to bring disgrace upon his family, city of Nakorn Rajasima, better were assigned to revise and correct 

Nevertheless, after much personal known as Korat, to begin mission- the then existing translations of the 

prayer and counsel from the mis- ary work. They arrived on June 21, six missionary lessons. This proved 

sionaries, Brother Boonepluke and and the following week regular to be a ponderous task, for the 

his wife were baptized and con- Sunday meetings were started, native Thai translators who had 

firmed members of the Church on Brother Anan Eldredge and his been hired were faced with two 

Era, March 1970 33 



major problems : ( 1 ) they were not 
familiar with the Church termin- 
ology and doctrine, and (2) the 
Thai language makes no provision 
for Christian concepts. For exam- 
ple, "Savior" must be translated 
"the Holy One who helps." To date, 
no suitable equivalent for the word 
"priesthood" has been discovered 
or coined. Thus, after only eight 
months in Thailand, the Church 
was established in two cities, the 
six missionary discussions had been 
suitably translated, and a good 
translation of "Joseph Smith's Testi- 
mony" was ready for publication. 

In December 1968, Elder Ezra 
Taft Benson of the Council of the 
Twelve visited Bangkok to attend a 
quarterly district conference. Dur- 
ing his visit, he was granted an 
audience with the king of Thailand, 
and he presented him with a copy 
of the Book of Mormon and a Thai- 
language copy of "Joseph Smith's 
Testimony." 

During that same district con- 
ference, President Hardy instructed 
two pairs of missionary companions 
to travel throughout northern Thai- 
land, in order to determine which 
cities might be suitable for mission- 
ary work. In the northern provinces 
of Thailand dwell several hill 
tribes whose culture, language, and 
traditions differ markedly from the 
Thais who inhabit the lowlands. 
The elders had heard of a tape 
recording that described some of 
these traditions. The following is 
taken from the journal of one of 
the missionaries, Elder Alan H. 
Hess: 

"After a while we decided to go 
in search of the people who sold 
the Karen hill tribe music tapes. 
All seemed to go without a hitch. 
The post office gave us the address 
of the post office box number we 
had received. When we got to the 
place, we found it to be the Baptist 
Mission. They have done exten- 
sive work among the hill tribes. 



They were quite curious as to why 
we wanted the tape, but they sold 
it to us anyway. Later we went 
into a tape recording shop and 
played it. The narrator told how 
the Karens have a legend about a 
golden book which was given to 
their forefathers. They say that 
they lost this 'Book of Life' through 
negligence. They also say that 
some white men will bring it to 
them again. Here is the narration 
as taken from that tape: 'The story 
of the Golden Book of Life has a 
large place in the traditions of the 
Karens. After Creation, God so- 
journed with man for a while, then 
returned to heaven to the company 
of His youngest son, a white man. 
Upon arriving in heaven, God gave 
the white man three books of life, 
one each for his children on earth. 
The books were delivered, and the 
white brother took his leave to the 
west, promising to pay a return 
visit someday. However, the Karen 
Indians soon lost their golden book 
through negligence and began 
wandering the pathway of animistic 
fears. With fervent expectation and 
hope, the Karen looks for the com- 
ing of his white brothers with the 
Golden Book of Life.' This longing 
helped open the way for early 
Christian missionaries. It is little 
wonder that the Bible has become 
the touchstone of the Karen Church 
and its faith." 

The following is a translation of 
a chant that has been handed down 
through the centuries among these 
hill tribes: 

"The old men tell us, 'Children re- 
member this: 
Remember that the white foreigner 

will return the Golden Book. 
When that happens, take the book, 

and take care of it. 
If you don't it'll be lost, and then 

there will be no hope at all. 
We're old, it's too late for us, but 

you'll be there. 
Watch the sea for the big ship. 



Where the waves beat themselves 

white, 
Watch for the white man's ship. 
They'll have the golden book. 
Take it.' " 

Continuing the journal excerpts: 

"Upon arrival in Chiang Mai we 
were speaking with some of the 
taxi drivers and one of them gave us 
the name of a Mr. Thompson, who 
was from the Karen tribe, but was 
taken when just a child and brought 
up by Baptist missionaries. He 
works in a local bank, and is active 
in the Baptist Church. The Lord 
was really with us in that almost as 
soon as we arrived back at the hotel, 
one of the workers there came to 
our door, and even before we asked 
she said she knew where Mr. 
Thomson lived and offered to take 
us there. We went with this little 
lady on a bus and up a road on the 
other end of town that would have 
been almost impossible for us to 
find on our own. Mr. Thompson 
received us most kindly, and upon 
request, related the tribe legend to 
us a little bit differently than we 
had heard it before. He said there 
was a gold book and a silver book 
which had been lost. The Baptists 
had been teaching that one book 
was the Bible and one was the hymn 
book. We told him about Joseph 
Smith, the gold plates, and the 
story of the Book of Mormon. He 
seemed impressed, but didn't really 
understand the import. But he did 
agree to pray about it. And we 
told him we would go to his bank 
the following day and take him a 
Book of Mormon." 

As one who witnessed the open- 
ing pages of the history of the 
Church in Thailand, I believe that 
there is every reason to believe that 
the words of Elder Hinckley in his 
dedicatory prayer will be fulfilled: 
that tens of thousands of Thai 
people will one day become mem- 
bers of The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. O 



34 



The Early Missions 
to Burma and Siam 



• Early in the 1850s the leaders of 
The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City, 
England, and Europe became inter- 
ested in the possibilities of estab- 
lishing missions in India, Siam 
(modern Thailand), and China. 
This was a period of great expan- 
sion of missionary work, and the 
idea of a world church was in the 
minds of many church members. 

At about the same time (Decem- 
ber 1849), two young sailors, 
George Barber and Benjamin 
Richey, were forced, because of 
needed ship repairs, to spend some 
time in Calcutta, India. They had 
joined the Church just prior to 
sailing for India and had a desire 
to preach the gospel. They inter- 
ested several English families in 
the Church. This was the first time 
the doctrines of Mormonism had 
been preached in India. Because 



By Dr. R. Lanier Britsch 

Barber and Richey did not have the 
authority, the families wrote to Eng- 
land asking for someone to baptize 
them. 

At about this same time two other 
requests for information and "liv- 
ing witnesses" were received in 
England and on the continent. 
These requests came from soldiers 
in the British army who had heard 
about the Church from friends in 
England. Within a few months 
three missionaries were dispatched 
to India. The first was Elder 
Joseph Richards, who was sent 
from England by G. B. Wallace, 
the conference president. Elder 
Richards arrived in Calcutta in mid- 
June 1851. There he found an in- 



terested group of potential members 
of the Church, and he baptized four 
people on June 22, 1851. The con- 
verts were Matthew McCune, 
Maurice White, and James Patric 
Meik and his wife, Mary Ann. 
Others were baptized in the next 
few days. Richard's visit to Cal- 
cutta was brief, because he had 
signed on as a sailmaker in order 
to gain passage to India; and when 
he was unable to find a replacement 
at Calcutta, he was forced to re- 
turn to England. He ordained 
Maurice White an elder and left 
him in charge of the "Wanderers' 
Branch." 

The second and third elders to 
India were sent by Lorenzo Snow, 



Dr. R. Lanier Britsch, assistant professor of history and associate coordinator 
of the Asian Studies Program at Brigham Young University, wrote his doctoral 
dissertation for Claremont (California) Graduate School on the early Church 
missions to Burma and Siam. 



Era, March 1970 35 



who was at that time president of 
the Swiss and Italian missions. 
Elder William Willes landed in 
Calcutta on December 25, 1851. 
Elder Hugh Findlay arrived in 
Bombay about the same time. 
Lorenzo Snow intended to go to 
India shortly after sending Willes 
and Findlay, but because of other 
church duties and calls, he was 
never able to fulfill his desire. 

Elder Willes took charge upon 
his arrival in Calcutta and served 
in India and Burma as a missionary 
for several years. The first few 
months of his mission brought con- 
siderable success. Word of this fact 
motivated the First Presidency to 
call nine men to fill missions in 
India, four to go to Siam, and four 
to China. Although Elder Willes 
had sent encouraging letters con- 
cerning his success in India, the 
Church opened Siam and China 
almost entirely on faith and hope. 

The missionaries chosen to go to 
India were Nathaniel Vary Jones, 
Amos Milton Musser, Samuel Amos 
Woolley, Richard Ballantyne, Rob- 
ert Skelton, William Fotheringham, 
William F. Carter, Truman Leon- 
ard, and Robert Owens. Called 
to Siam were Elam Luddington, 
Levi Savage, Chauncey Walker 
West, and Benjamin F. Dewey. 

The story of the wagon journey 
to California and the voyage to 
Calcutta is a saga in itself, but it 
must suffice to say that it was long 
and hard. The missionaries, who 
had been called on August 28, 
1852, and who had left Salt Lake 
City late in October, arrived in 
Calcutta on April 26, 1853. The 
Siam-bound elders had gone to 
Calcutta with the India group, 
because separate passage to Bang- 
kok was not available. These four 
men set their minds on reaching 
their destination, but in the end 
only one of them ever set foot on 
Siamese soil. Their intention had 
been to travel overland across 



Burma and Siam. However, the should be preached to all people, 

second Anglo-Burmese War was and knowing that he could not 

then in progress, and that route was teach the Burmese without a knowl- 

closed. Chauncey W. West and edge of the language, he made ar- 

Benjamin F. Dewey tried several rangements with a native teacher 

times to find sea passage, but in and started learning the Burmese 

the end, after visiting Ceylon and language. He also hoped that the 

Bombay, they were forced because gospel could soon be preached to 

of bad weather in southeast Asian a group of hill people called the 

waters to give up on their attempts Karens. He reported that the 

to reach Bangkok. Karens were "a people held in great 

Elders Luddington and Savage bondage by the Burmese; but who 

decided that they would go to seem to be prepared for the Gospel, 

Rangoon, Burma, to work. From having never been given up to 

there they hoped to find a way to idolatry, though surrounded with 

go to Siam. They were encouraged it on all sides. They have amongst 

to go to Rangoon by reports that them many principles of truth, 

had been sent to Church members handed down from father to son, 

in Calcutta from Matthew McCune, in their traditions; and are wor- 

who had been baptized in India, shippers of God." His desire that 

In August 1852, at the time when the Karens should be taught the 

new missionaries were being called gospel was later fulfilled, but with- 

to Asia, Matthew McCune, who was out the success that he expected, 

by this time an elder in the Church, From August 1852 until January 

was sent by the British army to 1853, McCune and Adams worked 

Rangoon. He traveled with William diligently at teaching the gospel. 

Adams, also a sergeant, who was a They found that the excellent at- 

member of the Church and held tendance at their first lecture did 



the office of teacher in the Aaronic 
Priesthood. They arrived in Ran- 
goon on August 17. 

Eager to teach Mormonism to 
other members of their military 



not prove to be a forecast of things 
to come, and they were soon happy 
to have any investigators, no matter 
how small the number. They placed 
handbills and announcements in 



unit, they decided to hold lecture public places, but their signs were 
meetings each Tuesday and Thurs- torn down and their handbills de- 
day evenings. The first lecture was stroyed. Nevertheless, by January 
held on August 23, and 20 people 1853, eight soldiers had been 
attended. The two brethren were baptized. 

delighted. They did not limit One problem that arose was in 
themselves to the Tuesday and not having books and information 
Thursday meetings; they also held to give investigators and converts, 
regular Sunday meetings and dis- McCune wrote to Calcutta and re- 
tributed tracts and literature during quested copies of the Book of 
their off-duty hours. Their first Mormon and other literature, but 
lecture meeting had been held in the supplies were slow in coming. 
McCune's tent, but soon they were This same problem arose from time 
able to arrange for a Burmese house to time in other parts of the mission, 
in which to live and teach. To have material sent from Eng- 
At first the two men devoted most land was expensive and time- 
of their energy to teaching military consuming. 

personnel, but soon they became Elder McCune was transferred 

interested in the Burmese people, by his military superiors from Ran- 

Elder McCune felt that the gospel goon to Martaban in late 1852, and 



36 



by the first part of 1853, he was 
scheduled to move into the field of 
combat. From January to August 
1853, he was on active military 
duty, continuing his work as a mis- 
sionary while in the field with his 
company. After his company had 
left Martaban, it marched for six 
weeks through the Sitang Valley. 
During this time McCune was 
teaching the gospel, and he was 
able to baptize one man while on 
the six-week trek. 

At the end of the movement, the 
"Martaban column" stopped for 
two months at a town called Sho- 
waygheen. While there McCune 
was "fortunate enough to obtain use 
of a phonghee -house, that is, the 
house of the Buddhist priests, to 
live in, and I made a chapel of it, 
continuing our meetings for preach- 
ing, the same as on the march." 

In a short time, however, he was 
turned out of this place by the 
military authorities. He set up 
chapels three times, but each time 
was told to leave. The following is 
his description of the third dis- 
placement: 

"I then obtained permission of 
the engineering officer to take pos- 
session of an image-house on the 
top of a hill, beside a pagoda. This 
house was filled at one end with 
large gilt images— the gods of the 
poor Burmese. This I ivalled in 
with mats, and I had a floor of 
wood put in it for me, by the kind 
engineer officer, and here I again 
commenced preaching the Gospel 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. But I had 
not held possession more than a 
fortnight, when I was again warned 
to turn out, as the authorities re- 
quired to build a magazine for 
powder round the pagoda, the wall 
of which magazine, they said, 
would have to run through my 
chapel. They commenced pulling 
down just sufficient of the roof to 
render the building uninhabitable, 
and then stopped. 1 moved into my 



Era, March 1970 37 



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tent, with the feeling deeply im- 
pressed on my mind that my work 
was done at Showaygheen." 

During the time that McCune 
was able to hold meetings in the 
various houses in Showaygheen, he 
baptized two more men. In August, 
when he arrived in Rangoon, he 
found that the little branch there 
had become inactive. The persecu- 



tion had been too great for the new 
convert who had been left in 
charge. McCune was, of course, 
disappointed to find affairs in this 
state, but he was soon given hope 
by the arrival of two American 
missionaries, Elders Luddington 
and Savage. 

On June 15, 1853, Elam Ludding- 
ton and Levi Savage had taken 



The 
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"The Spoken Word" from Tem- 
ple Square, presented over KSL 
and the Columbia Broadcasting 
System December 14, 1969.©1969 



Infinite kindness 

By Richard L. Evans 

Red Barber reminds us of one overall quality that Branch Rickey 
said a man must have if he were to marry one of the famous base- 
ball manager's daughters. Well, one could imagine a long list of all 
the virtues and attributes that would be required: honor, ambition, tal- 
ent, money, social acceptance, and all the others. But the one quality 
absolutely required was this: infinite kindness. 1 Kindness might seem to 
be secondary, but it quickly broadens out on a wide base. If a person 
is sincerely kind, he wouldn't deceive, he wouldn't hurt, he wouldn't 
make unhappy. If a person is sincerely kind, he wouldn't disappoint a 
loved one by being dishonest, disloyal, unfaithful. Immorality is not 
kind — not to others or ourselves. Dishonesty is not kind — not to any- 
one. Lack of support, lack of encouragement, lack of cooperation are 
not kind. Infinite kindness includes consideration, compassion, loyalty 
— and increases love. Oh, how many hearts have been broken, how 
many lives have been blighted by the cruelty of unkindness! Yet how 
many marriages have been saved, how many sorrows softened by the 
quality of kindness! Kindness would respect, care for, comfort. Kind- 
ness would bring people closer. Kindness would hallow a home, even 
in the presence of many problems. The Master of mankind spoke 
sharply at times, and rebuked as occasion required, but it is not re- 
corded that he was unkind ever to a sincere or repentant person. One 
wouldn't want a son, a daughter, a child committed in any way to 
anyone who was cruel or unkind. Kindness would surely have to be 
high among the qualities of a husband, a wife, a child, a parent, or 
any acceptable person. Infinite kindness — it could save a marriage. It 
could bring out the best; it could cover for many other qualities. 

"Oh, the kind words we give shall in memory live 

And sunshine forever impart. 

Let us oft speak kind words to each other; 

Kind words are sweet tones of the heart." 2 



'Red Barber, Walk in the Spirit: Mr. Rickey. The Dial Press, Inc. 
Joseph L. Townsend, "Let Us Oft Speak Kind Words." 



passage on the Fire Queen, which 
was bound for Rangoon. This voy- 
age, the first of two attempts to 
sail to Burma, nearly took the lives 
of the persons on board. Because 
of a severe storm, they were forced 
to turn back to Calcutta. Elder 
Amos Musser, a missionary who was 
stationed in Calcutta, described the 
return of Elders Luddington and 
Savage : 

"While at dinner Brother Lud- 
dington came in, in an awful pre- 
dicament, close [sic] dirty, hat re- 
duced to 2/3 the size, etc., etc. The 
ship they started to Rangoon in, 
three days after they left here she 
sprung a leak and they had been 
hailing and pumping water night 
and day ever since. They throwed 
all their cargo overboard and gave 
themselves up to the Lord and re- 
signed themselves for a watery 
grave. They throwed all of the 
stores overboard, but the Lord de- 
livered them safe. This trial came 
in exact fulfilment of what Brother 
Woodruff told us before we left 
home in the mountains. He said the 
spirit whispered to him that some 
of us would have great trials at sea, 
etc., etc" 

After a little over a month in dry 
dock, the Fire Queen was once 
again ready to sail. When Elders 
Luddington and Savage arrived in 
Rangoon, they began holding meet- 
ings on the same schedule that had 
been followed by McCune and 
Adams. The location of the meet- 
ings was changed, however, to a 
place within the military stockade, 
"near the great Shirah-dong Pa- 
goda." The meetings were well 
attended. 

In a letter to President Richards 
in England, Elder Luddington told 
of the success he was having in 
preaching on the government wharf 
in Rangoon. He told of one meeting 
in which he spoke "to Burmese, 
Bengalese, Malays, Brahmins of 
different castes, Mussulmen, Ar- 



38 Era, March 1970 



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menians, Jews, and gentiles." 

In the meantime, Elder Savage 
decided that he would branch out 
on his own. He felt that he would 
be happier if he went to work with 
the Burmese. On September 28, 
1853, he left Rangoon and went to 
Moulmein, across the Gulf of 
Martaban, where he remained for 
some months, spending a great part 
of his time attempting to learn the 
Burmese language. 

By January 1854, Elder Ludding- 
ton, with the assistance of Elder 
McCune, had been able to baptize 
two more soldiers into the Church. 
But the work was moving slowly, 
for in the year and a half that 
McCune had been in Rangoon, only 
ten persons had become members. 
Because of the lack of progress in 
Rangoon, and because Luddington 
still had a desire to fulfill his mis- 
sion call to Siam, he sailed from 
Rangoon for Singapore on February 
3, 1854, arriving at Pulo Penang, 
or Prince of Wales Island, in late 
February. After a stay there of five 
days, during which he preached the 
gospel, he sailed again, this time to 
Singapore. From there he took 
passage on a ship bound for Bang- 
kok, arriving there April 6, 1854. A 
few weeks later he wrote to the 
Saints in England; "I am following 
my calling at this time in the jungles 
of Siam, far from a civilized nation, 
and surrounded on the one hand by 
wild savages, and by wild beasts 
on the other." 

In Bangkok, Elder Luddington 
held meetings whenever possible. 
His first service was held on April 
9 at the home of Captain James 
Trail, the skipper of the ship in 
which he had sailed to Bangkok. 
After hearing Luddington's words, 
the captain and his wife asked for 
baptism and were baptized that 
night. 

Unfortunately, the remainder of 
Elder Luddington's mission to Siam 
did not yield such rewards. Captain 



40 Era, March 1970 



Trail and his wife were, in fact, the 
only converts in Bangkok. Ludding- 
ton, however, did have some ex- 
periences that were rather unusual. 
He called on the Siamese Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, and at the con- 
clusion of the one-hour conversa- 
tion, the minister asked him 
whether the prophet of God would 
come to Bangkok. On another 
occasion he was requested to write 
a letter to the king of Siam. He 
reported : 

"I have written a long letter to 
the king— To His Most Gracious 
Majesty Phrabat Somdet Pra Chom 
Klaw Chao Ya llua, sovereign of 
Laos, at his request. He being de- 
sirous to knoio something about the 
gold plates, I gave him a brief 
synopsis of the same. He is about 
fifty years old, and has a family 
of several hundred wives, and chil- 
dren without number." 

In March 1854, Elder William 
Willes, the second missionary to 
India, who by this time had been 
given his choice to stay in India or 
go home, decided to go to Rangoon 
to help Elder McCune, who was 
now working alone in that city. 
Elder Willes added a great deal of 
enthusiasm to the Burma Mission 
during the six months he stayed 
there. He baptized 20 persons and 
opened a school to teach the Eng- 
lish language. He used the money 
that he earned in teaching English 
to pay for his passage home to 
England. 

In August 1854, when Elder 
Willes had been in Rangoon for six 
months, he wrote that the work had 
slowed down a great deal. At that 
time Nathanial V. Jones, president 
of the mission, once again invited 
Willes to take his leave whenever 
he felt so inclined. Apparently the 
work had also slowed down to a 
standstill in Calcutta, for President 
Jones decided to go to Burma for a 
while. His trip there, as he writes 
in a letter, was admittedly at least 



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in part for the purpose of getting 
away from Calcutta. When he ar- 
rived in Rangoon, he worked with 
the elders there for a few days and 
then sailed across the Gulf of Marta- 
ban to Moulmein, to see Elder 
Savage. Savage had by this time 
been in Moulmein for about a year 
and had devoted his attentions to 
the native people. He was becom- 
ing quite fluent in the Burmese lan- 



desires and anticipations that we 
should find a people that would 
receive our testimony. The first 
night set us far beyond the reach 
of the European population, in the 
midst of the swarming multitudes 
that inhabit this country. That night 
we stopped in a Karen village, 
which we reached some time after 
nightfall, in not a very agreeable 
condition, for I had the misfortune 



"1 told the captain that the man, kingdom, 
or nation that fought against the Saints . . . 
should go backward and not forward, 
should sink and not swim,'" replied the elder 



guage; however, he had not made 
any conversions to the Church. 
Because Elder Jones felt that Sav- 
age could be helpful to him, he took 
him back to Rangoon. 

In addition to his desire to get 
away from Calcutta, Jones was 
also interested in supervising the 
Rangoon Branch and seeing wheth- 
er he could give the elders encour- 
agement in their work there. 
Another purpose was to visit the 
Karens. After returning to Rangoon 
from Moulmein, Elder Jones stated: 

"We then began to make prepara- 
tions for our trip amongst the 
Karens. We tried to get some con- 
veyance by land, but soon learned 
that in consequence of the incessant 
rains that prevail here six months 
of the year, an overland trip was 
no way practicable, having to cross 
mullahs (ravines), and low strips of 
land which were in all probability 
inundated. As a last resort, we 
came to the conclusion to hire a 
boat which we did for four English 
shillings per day. We then provided 
ourselves with the needful for the 
campaign, and set off buoyant with 



just before night to get an overturn, 
by which I was enabled to judge 
correctly the depth of the water, 
which I found to be several feet. 
We, however, made the best of it 
for the night, and by morning my 
clothes were partly dry. But with 
the daylight came a strange and 
magic view, to American eyes— a 
whole community of villages upon 
posts from six to ten feet above the 
water. They looked like the in- 
habitants of Neptune, that had just 
emerged from the watery element. 
An old adage came to mind with 
much force, which was, that 'one 
half of the world do not know how 
the other half live.' This is literally 
true. . . ." 

Elder Jones was interested in the 
way the Karen people lived, but he 
was most concerned with their re- 
ligious views. He hoped that the 
reports that they had a belief in 
God would prove to be true. 

"In their religious views we did 
not find the people as represented. 
They do not worship the 'Great 
Spirit,' as the missionaries have 
stated. Very many of them are 



Buddhists, and those who are not 
do not worship anything— they have 
no correct idea of God at all. 
Brother Savage told them who we 
were, and the nature of our mes- 
sage. It was a new train of thought, 
and such a burst of new ideas upon 
their contracted minds, that they 
could not comprehend it at all. 
They will not understand that we 
know anything of the God whom 
we worship, only in the same man- 
ner that they do— that is, by some 
fabulous legend or tradition like 
their own. They know nothing of 
the past, only by tradition; which 
forms the leading feature in their 
character, and I think it is more 
firmly reveted upon their minds 
than any other people's in the 
world; in fact all Asiatics partake 
more or less of this spirit, it is inter- 
woven with their very existence, 
and it is almost a thing impossible 
to make any inroad upon them. 
They are indeed a strange sect, and 
it is like commencing with the raw 
material to do anything with them, 
for they must be remodeled 
throughout, and there seems so 
little to commence upon that it is 
difficult to begin the work of 
creation." 

As they traveled from village to 
village, Elders Jones and Savage 
found the Karen people to be much 
alike in their beliefs and reactions 
to the gospel. Although they were 
disappointed by their lack of suc- 
cess, the elders still felt that the 
Burmese and Karen people were the 
finest Asiatics they had worked 
with. 

Upon their return to Rangoon, 
Elder Jones went back to Calcutta; 
Elder Savage, who was working on 
a translation of The Vision of 
Joseph Smith into the Burmese lan- 
guage, decided to stay in Rangoon 
for a while longer. 

In the meantime, Elder Willes 
sailed on a ship bound for Pulo 
Penang, from where he planned to 



42 



find a ship that was going to the 
west coast of America, but in this 
he was not successful. A captain 
then gave him the opportunity to go 
to Singapore. He later found that 
he had been offered passage so 
"that he might assist him [the cap- 
tain] and the crew in defending 
them from the piratical Malays, 
who infest the Straits of Malacca." 

Fortunately there was not an 
attack from the Malays, and Willes 
reached Singapore safely. There 
he was surprised to find Elder 
Luddington, who had been working 
in Bangkok, but who was "about 
the same as mobbed out." Ludding- 
ton wrote of their meeting: 
"Brother Willes spent four days 
with me, which was like balm to 
a wounded spirit, or water to a 
thirsty man. When I was hungry, 
he took me to the bazzar [sic], and 
bought me a loaf of bread and a 
bowl of soup with a few vegetables 
and China fixings." Even though 
the elders would have preferred 
staying together longer, Willes 
made arrangements to sail to Liver- 
pool, England, on the ship Gazelle, 
and so they parted on October 14, 
1854. 

Elder Luddington soon sailed 
from Singapore. On December 10, 
1854, he wrote to President Frank- 
lin D. Richards, telling of his ex- 
periences at sea: 

"I arrived in this place [Hong 
Kong] on the morning of the first 
instant, after a long and sickening 
voyage of 35 days from the Straits 
of Malacca, or Singapore. We put 
in here in distress. I was a pas- 
senger on hoard the Prince Woron- 
zoff from Edinburgh, Scotland. 

"On the ninth day out, 15 miles 
to the westward of Paliwon Is- 
land . . . fust before dawn of day, on 
Saturday the 4th of November, in 
a heavy fog and rain, our clipper 
struck with great violence on a 
coral reef, or sunken rock. The 
captain ordered port helm, and all 



on board was as silent as the char- 
nal house of death. We struck 
three or four times on those rough 
and pointed rocks, and our hopes 
were almost gone, and death stared 
us in the face, but thank the Lord, 
He sent to our relief an unusually 
large wave, which carried us over 
the rock into deep water. We 
manned the pumps, and sounded 
the water in the hold, and found 
the vessel made one inch of water 
every three minutes, or 20 inches 
per hour. Our spirits groaned with- 
in us. It was a time of deepest 
distress. I felt that my mission had 
been according to the will of heav- 
en, and I could not but ask, "Father, 
must I leave my body here?" But 
I felt, 'Thy will, O Lord, be done.' 

"I had a little hope that we might 
save ourselves in our boats, but to 
our terror the captain informed us 
that the inhabitants of Paliwon Is- 
land were all cannibals. The island 
is not far from Borneo. . . . 

"Our gallant brig was bound for 
Shanghai, and the captain was de 
termined to run her into that port, 
if possible to save expense, other- 
wise we might have put into 
Manilla, which would have been 
far better. 

"Here commenced the epoch— 
trouble, sorrow, sickness, pain vitu- 
peration, and abuse. I was sick and 
had to stand in the water at the 
brake of the pump morning and 
night, to keep us afloat, and save 
our lives, with however little hopes. 
We were for 15 days in a gale of 
wind. . . . Sometimes we carried on 
mountain waves, and then again 
thrust down into the great abyss 
of waters, in the troughs of the sea, 
expecting at times to be buried, as 
the vessel often shipped seas which 
swept the decks fore and aft. I was 
sick, and my body was born down 
with pain from costiveness and the 
general disorganized state of my 
system. 

"All this toas but trifling. Said 

Era, March 1970 43 




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the captain, 'Ah! you are the Judas, 
your religion is of the devil, you 
ought to be put to death, and if 
Jesus toas now on the earth, you 
would put him to death.' 

"'No,' I replied, 'We are his 
friends, and not his enemies' The 
persecution came hotter and hotter. 
After reading Elder Spender's let- 
ters, the captain said that he was a 
liar, for he condemned everybody 
and everything but his own order. 
I told the captain that the man, 
kingdom, or nation that fought 
against the Saints of Latter-days, 
should go backward and not for- 
ward, should sink and not swim. 

"We passed Formosa Island two 
days out in the Pacific Ocean. The 
leak increased, and caused alarm, 
and we turned our course and 
stood for Amoy. The storm came 
on again, accompanied with thun- 
der and lightning, the clouds gath- 
ered blackness, the elements became 
furious, and the seas again swept 
our decks; we then put into Hong 
Kong. After running within three 
days' sail of Shanghai, we were 
driven back 700 miles to the very 
place where I wanted to land 35 
days before." 

Elder Luddington remained in 
Hong Kong a few days, recovering 
from his seasickness, and then 
started looking for a free passage 
to California. In mid-December he 
was able to sail on the ship Lucas, 
bound for San Francisco. 

In Rangoon, Elder Savage con- 
tinued to preach the gospel until 
late in 1855; then he traveled to 
Calcutta, from where he embarked 
for Boston. Elder McCune and his 
family remained in Rangoon until 
1856, when he was discharged from 
the army. All of these missionaries, 
including McCune, later lived in 
the Salt Lake Valley. From the time 
the McCunes left Rangoon until 
only recently, the Church did not 
have an officially recognized mis- 
sion in Southeast Asia. O 



44 Era, March 1970 









*W 



TO BE YOUNG IN 






• 





• High in the rugged and snowcapped 
Andes Mountains and at the base of 
21,000-foot Mt. Illimani lies the beauti- 
ful city of La Paz, Bolivia. Founded 
in a natural canyon in 1548 by the 
Spaniards, who wished to protect them- 
selves from the icy winds that sweep 
across the 13,000-foot altiplano, or 
high plain, La Paz is the home of some 
150 young Mormons. 

In a developing country such as 
Bolivia, where progress is slow and 
many modern conveniences are not to 
be found, The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints plays an important 
role in the lives of its young people. 
In an area where few or no organized 
activities are generally offered to 



youth, the Church, especially through 
the Mutual Improvement Associations, 
offers the youth opportunities to grow 
and develop along many lines. For 
some of the youth, these activities 
offer the only social association they 
have. 

The MIA programs are an effective 
missionary tool for the youth in bring- 
ing the gospel to their peers. The de- 
sire of the young Bolivian members to 
participate and develop is without 
equal. Many of them dedicate most of 
their spare time to the Church and its 
growth, and most of each Saturday's 
daylight hours are spent participating 
in organized tournaments and athletic 
contests. 



Speech festivals, road shows, special 
district sporting events such as volley- 
ball and baby football (a soccer game 
usually played on a basketball court), 
and the general activities give young 
members and nonmembers the oppor- 
tunity they need to progress and better 
themselves, both spiritually and men 
tally. 

Dating customs in Bolivia for the 
youth of the Church are different from 
those in many other countries. Usually 
the young man must visit the home of 
the girl's parents to ask their permis- 
sion for a date with their daughter. 
Their dates may include attending 
such events as movies, soccer matches, 
and other sporting events; trips to 



■ 
■ 






:'■■,■:■■ 

.■■■■■ 



■fe 




46 



f la bI|||| 
^ae^ Ssd s I I if m 

Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable 
lake in the world, or to Chacaltaya, the 
highest ski resort in the world; or pic- 
nics at the ancient ruins of Tiahuanacu, 
which date back to the pre-lnca period. 
Another date is a group party called a 
pena Fo/k/or/'ca, where everyone is re- 
quired to dress in typical Bolivian cos- 
tumes, and typical dances and folk 
music are presented. 

Many of the members date non- 
members, since the Church membership 
is rather small. This gives them a 
chance to bring the gospel into the 
lives of friends by their example. En- 
tire families have been brought into 
the Church because of the influence of 
young members. 



Most Bolivian youth begin attend- 
ing school at the age of five or six and 
continue their schooling until 18 or 
19. The schools are government con- 
trolled and organized. Many schools 
offer programs to people in the rural 
areas, where some of the better stu- 
dents spend days in the campo, or 
country, teaching their fellow Bolivians 
how to read and write and how to 
better their present living conditions 
and way of life. This program attracts 
many of our Mormon youth and gives 
them an opportunity to serve their 
fellow Bolivians, 70 percent of whom 
are still illiterate. 

Education in Bolivia is free, includ- 
ing the universities; and, as a result, 



the number of students who work part- 
time while attending school is very 
small. 

Most of the youth who belong to 
the Church in Bolivia have a very im- 
portant role in the Church's growth and 
development. They give service in the 
auxiliary organizations and missionary 
work. They hold such positions as 
dance directors, branch counselors, 
presidents, superintendents, and coun- 
selors of the MIA and the Primary, or 
class teachers. 

In a number of branches, the Pri- 
mary and the MIA organizations are 
made up of young members, and in 
Bolivia we are blessed with some of 
the finest. By Dee Talbot 





The door of the moon with 
its new, modern-day Incas. 
Left to right, Virginia Ausa, 
Ernesto Caste/, Soraida Sainz, 
Monica Barrios, Elsa Sainz, 
O/ga Sainz, Eduardo Sanabria, 
and Cecilia Barrios. On top 
of the door are Nets Quiroz, 
Hugo Castel, and Ernesto Sana- 
bria. 



Canoeing on the highest lake 
in the world are Eduardo 
Sanabria, Virginia Ausa, Olga 
Sainz, and Ernesto Sanabria. 

Gonzalo Aliaga is asking the 
parents of Christina Vazquez 
for permission to date their 
daughter. Young Bolivian men 
are required to visit the girl's 
family before permission is 
given for a date. 



Olga Sainz and Monica Barrios 
visit with a poor altiplano 
farmer, whom they are teach- 
ing to read. In the background 
are typical Bolivian adobe 
houses. 



Era, March 1970 47 




LDc 



By J. Marvin Higbee 

After watching a man being beaten nearly to 
death, a bystander, when asked why he didn't do 
anything to stop the crime, said, "I just didn't 
want to get involved. They might have turned on 
Anyway, it wasn't any of my business. That's 
why we have the cops to take care of things like 
this!" 

We say, "Isn't that terrible? That would never 
happen to me!" But I wonder if, in another way, 
we too are uninvolved. Some reports claim only 
two percent of the students on college campuses 
are what are termed "activists." The other 98 
percent are uninvolved in the "activist" move- 
ments. What are they doing? 

Some become involved in campus affairs; most 
don't. Some become involved in civic affairs; 
most don't. Generally speaking, the other 98 per- 
cent are doing little. They are not involved. 
They stand by and watch while ideas, institutions, 
and people are destroyed, and decisions that affect 
them are made without the benefit of their think- 
ing. Many Latter-day Saint college and university 
students are right in the middle of the uninvolved 
98 percent. 

Some of this uninvolvement on the part of 
Latter-day Saints comes because of fear, mis- 
understanding, or complacency, or because they 
are not prepared or motivated to become involved. 

The Lord never intended for us to isolate our- 
selves from the world. In John 17:15 he very 
specifically says, "I pray not that thou shouldest 
take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest 
keep them from the evil." He seems to be saying 
that we must live in the world and struggle with 
the problems of the world, but not become "of the 
world." In other words, we need to be involved 
in the world and help with the solutions to the 
problems of the world. We need not isolate our- 
selves; rather, we should insulate against their 
negative influence. The Latter-day Saint college 



Something 



and university students of today need to become 
involved. In this day more than ever, the people 
of the world need help. They need to know the 
gospel principles not only in word but also in 
action. I'm not suggesting only proselyting or 
attempting to convert people, but rather extending 
ourselves, and through us the gospel, by applying 
its principles through involvement in campus, 
civic, social, and political affairs. 

There may be those of us who fear the world's 
close scrutiny of certain doctrines and policies of 
the Church; and thus, rather than becoming in- 
volved and attempting to answer the difficult 
questions, we isolate ourselves. This fear may be 
understandable, but fear should never be a basis 
for lack of involvement. In Edna St. Vincent Mil- 
lay's "Aria De Capo," Corydon said to Thyrsis, 
"One of us needs to risk ... or don't you see, the 
game will go on forever." We can never hope to 
explain all things to all people, but we can apply 
the principles of Christianity in our relationships 
with all people. 

Here are some suggestions as to how a Latter- 
day Saint student might become involved in cam- 
pus, civic, social, and political affairs and thus, 
through the way he conducts himself, extend the 
gospel to many who would otherwise never have 
been aware of it. 

1. Commit yourself to becoming involved. 

2. Pick out one issue or problem you see, be- 
come informed, and then do something. 

3. Write a letter to the editor of your school 
paper when you don't agree with what is happen- 
ing on or off campus, or even if you do agree. 

4. Become aware of the needs of those in the 
ghettos and in the educationally and socially de- 
prived areas. 

5. Become involved in social service groups. 
Volunteer to help in any way you can, whether 
you feel qualified or not. 



6. Prepare yourself for positions in student 
government and organizations on campus and 
then seek those positions. 

7. Become involved in the institute of religion, 
but don't isolate yourself behind its walls. 

8. Develop an attitude of extending yourself 
beyond the limits of the Church doors. 

9. Let your voice be heard, but let it be in 
gentleness and patience. Someone said, "All things 
come to him who prepares himself with patience." 

10. You may not be able to do much, but you 
can do something, so do it! There are numerous 
other things that can be done, and if you let your 
imagination run and listen to the cries of mankind 
with your heart, you will know what to do. 

As we become more involved with ideas, pro- 
grams, political theories, and the civil rights of 
mankind, let's consider this very meaningful 
thought. It is taken from The Book of Tao, which 
was written over 2,500 years ago by the ancient 
Chinese philosopher, Lao Tzu. He wrote: "When 
living, man is supple and yielding; when dead, 
man is hard and stiff. When living, all animals 
and plants are soft and pliant ; when dead, they are 
withered and brittle. Thus, being inflexible and 
unyielding is part of dying, being flexible and 
yielding is a part of living." 

The essence of this statement is "listen." We 
need to be sensitive to others' points of view. One 
of the great dangers of "having the truth" is the 
tendency not to search for further truth or be 
willing to listen to others as they explain how they 
see it. 

Being flexible and yielding does not mean to 
discard standards and beliefs, but rather, while 
holding tightly to these truths, to be willing to 
continue the search by being sensitive to the Lord, 
to the needs of mankind, drawing from their ex- 
periences, and acting upon what we see and hear 
that is good. o 



Era, March 1970 49 




basket b 




an 
interesting 

HERITAGE 

By Joseph S. Wood 

YMMIA General Board. 
Athletic Committee 



• Monday, March 9, marks the 
beginning day of the 1970 five-day 
all-Church basketball tournament 
in Salt Lake City. Thirty-two M-Men 
teams will be competing in the 
senior division, while 32 Ensign 
teams will be striving for cham- 
pionship in the junior division. This 
large gathering of teams will rep- 
resent all sections of the United 
States as well as Alberta, Canada. 

These 64 teams survived their 
stake league play and their zone 
play-offs in order to reach the 
coveted all-Church tournament. 
They are the teams remaining out 
of a total of approximately 4,400 
that began stake competitions a 
few weeks ago. Without question, 
this makes the Church's basketball 
program the largest organization 
of basketball competition in all 
the world. 

How did this program get 
started? Like most things that are 
large and expansive, it once was 
a struggling and tiny beginner. It 
was far back in 1906 that the MIA 
leaders of Ensign Stake in Salt 
Lake City began to talk seriously 
of adding a regular athletic activity 
for the benefit of the Junior De- 
partment of the Mutual program. 
The movement was particularly 
suited to the 20th Ward of that 
stake, where the president of the 
Junior Department gave a pen- 
nant for the winner of the two 
basketball teams in the ward. Each 
team selected its own officers, and 
the winning of the pennant was to 



be based upon points for MIA 
attendance as well as recruitment 
of new members. The teams were 
named Green and Purple, and a 
great deal of interest was aroused 
by this new experiment. 

By the spring of 1908 all of the 
wards in the Ensign Stake had 
teams participating in a stake 
basketball league. The 20th Ward 
lost only one game of the first 11 
games they played. On April 15, 
1908, before 300 spectators in the 
20th Ward annex, that ward de- 
feated the 18th Ward team by a 
score of 28 to 23 in the game that 
decided the stake championship. 

The athletic activity continued 
to grow in other ward MIAs until 
1916, when the suggestion was 
made in a general board meeting 
that basketball be discontinued be- 
cause athletics were being adopted 
by the high schools; for the next 
six years basketball was not a part 
of the Mutual activity at all. 

In September 1921, John D. 
Giles, who was at that time super- 
intendent of the Ensign Stake MIA, 
called together the stake superin- 
tendents of Granite, Liberty, Pio- 
neer, Salt Lake, and Ensign stakes 
to discuss the possibilities of bas- 
ketball competition, with a tourna- 
ment among the stake champions 
to be held the following spring. He 
was chairman of this first tourna- 
ment. 

At approximately this same time 
the age group for young men be- 
tween the ages of 17 and 23 be- 



came officially known as M Men. 
Immediately following the 1922 
tournament, the superintendents 
met again with the representatives 
of the M Men themselves, and it 
was decided to continue the bas- 
ketball activity but to organize it 
on a more definite foundation, giv- 
ing special attention to eligibility 
and officiating. This first formal 
meeting was held in the fall of 
1922, at which time the first con- 
stitution of the M Men Basketball 
League was drawn up. 

In 1929 the MIA general board 
took over the administration and 
supervision of the basketball pro- 
gram. It was becoming evident 
that this was a program that would 
spread to an all-Church basis, be- 
cause it was an activity of popular 
appeal that promoted wholesome 
recreational association and clean 
living among its participants. 

From 1922 to 1970 the basket- 
ball program has grown steadily 
and constantly — each year becom- 
ing larger and greater than in the 
past. There has been a steady 
parade of good teams and fine 
young men striving for a coveted 
championship — the all-Church. 
One thing is certain: March 9, 
1970, marks the beginning of the 
greatest all-Church tournament 
ever held. 

But it is also rather certain 
that its success will be surpassed 
a year later. That seems to be 
the way the all-Church tourna- 
ment operates. o 




Pi 



Era, March 1970 51 





• Almost everyone who has ever 
driven a car has experienced that 
hopeless, helpless feeling of wheel- 
spinning on ice or in thick, gooey 
mud. That bogged-down feeling — 
who needs it? 

A sense of getting somewhere 
is so important to Latter-day Saints 
that it is easy to see why a wise 
God made it necessary for us all 
to keep busy. Many people think 
God cursed Adam when he intro- 
duced hard work into the life of 
man (and sometimes the things 
we have to do are a bit of a drag), 
but would it be much fun to go 
through life spinning our wheels 
and really not getting anywhere? 

Somehow, when you know that 
the world has an eternal purpose 
behind it, the challenge and ex- 
citement of accomplishing some- 
thing each day toward fulfilling 
that purpose becomes one of the 
central aspects of life. One of our 
beloved Church leaders, President 
Stephen L Richards, put it this 
way: 

"Work with faith is a cardinal 
point of our theological doctrine, 
and our future state — our heaven 
— is envisioned in terms of eternal 
progression through constant la- 
bor." (Where is Wisdom? [Deseret 
Book Company, 1955], p. 253.) 

In a day when a lot of new slo- 
gans have taken over, we hear 
much about the need for people 
to "do their own thing." There 
are lots of things to do — and they 
don't need to be unpleasant, far- 
out things that can border on the 
illegal or the immoral. The world 
cries out with things that need to 
be done. Even if you have a job, 
don't overlook the many bound- 
less opportunities to help someone 
else — with or without pay for your 
work. 

"The world has need of willing 
men," according to an old church 
song. Those words are just as true 



today as when they were first 
written. 

Following are six volunteer jobs 
that would be helpful, character 
building, and just plain fun. You 
know many more. 

1. Somewhere along the line 
perhaps you've acquired skill in a 
foreign language — in the home, in 
the mission field, during a travel- 
study tour, at school. Why not 
make yourself available to the lan- 
guage teacher at your former 
school as a "resource person"? 
You could drill the slower students, 
bounce questions around, hold 
conversations with them, or other- 
wise show that foreign languages 
are possible — and fun — to learn. 

2. There's not a hospital any- 
where that can't make good use of 
a pair of willing hands. Scrub up 
your own, and let some overworked 
nurse or administrator know that 
you'd like to spend a few hours 
each week helping out. 

3. Let's assume that you en- 
joy plays and concerts and that 
you know how to write. Even news- 
papermen can't be in more than 
one place at a time. Many an editor 
would like to send you out to cover 
a cultural event when his own 
staffers are tied up with other 
stories. 

4. Almost every city or town 
has its share of underprivileged 
children or teen-agers — the poor, 
the handicapped, those who've 
made a mistake or who need a 
helping hand. If you can guide 
even one of these to find the 
handle of his bootstraps, you may 
share his thrill if he's able to pull 
himself up. 

5. Almost every Mormon youth 
does something well or has a talent 
that sets him or her apart from 
the crowd. It's almost just as cer- 
tain that someone — sometime — 
recognized this gift and helped 
develop it. There's no law that 



52 



says you can't search out someone 
else with a similar gift and encour- 
age that person. Teaching is shar- 
ing. Sometimes the recognition of 
talent is all the nourishment that 
talent may need to help it blossom 
into something wonderful. 

6. Humanitarianism — like God 
— is not dead. Even in the most 
affluent neighborhood there is 
likely to be an elderly or infirm 
person who needs some help with 
the many little things it takes to 
keep a house running smoothly. 
Leaves you've raked for free will 
crunch musically underfoot; snow 
you've shoveled just because you 
wanted to will shine a little whiter; 
trash you've voluntarily carried out 
might not even look like trash at 
all. Or you could mend a fence, 
fix a broken pane of glass, install 
a light switch, or do a hundred and 
one things that would not take 
long but could mean much. 

If you look back over this begin- 
ning list, you'll find that some of 
these little jobs could even lead 
to exciting careers. 

Obviously, some things you'd 
like to do might take more than 
just one pair of willing hands. Vol- 
unteer for a few friends, too. If, 
like a lot of people, you're sitting 
around wondering what to do (just 
letting those old energy wheels 
spin, as it were), why not conjure 
up a work party where it will do 
the most good? The resultant 
shock may shake both you and the 
neighbor served, but chances are 
you will all survive the blow. 

The earth spins because it has 
some place to go in God's scheme 
of things. Some of us spin in vain 
because we don't have a place to 
go. A loosely spinning wheel 
starts to function as soon as it 
grabs hold of something solid. If 
some honest "sweat of the face" 
will start you on your way, get with 
it. Stop spinning your wheels! o 











.1" 






:. 









M,y- v <X 



7 



f 



\ 



i 




"V 






■ 



A Girl Is Like 
a Fawn 



By Dennis H. Drake 





Spring-young, a girl is like a fawn 

In danger situations: 

Half -frightened, half -curious, 

At once attracted and repelled. 

An instinct older than age warrants 

Will warn youth — 

To bound away brief and sure 

Permits ripeness, beauty, life. 

But mute indulgence invites a dulling sting 

That is ending, not beginning, as evening to dawn. 

A gentle doe is never born; she grows from a fawn. 



r ■■ 



\ 



Ik 












Parent 

By Margot Van Orman 

How could 

we thank you 

for the 

time 

and 

patience, 

until our 

time was consumed 

and our 

patience 

sorely 

tried ? 

How could 

we express our 

joy in 

growing 

and 

progressing, 

ivithout our 

expansion in precept 

and progression 

step 

by 

step ? 

How could 

we repay your 

sacrifice in 

giving 

us 

life, 

except by 

our making life 

as you 

selflessly 

made 

us? 

Noiv we 

can thank you. 



Thank You. 



54 




DOWNEY, CALIFORNIA . . . Troop 307 
has just celebrated a first — six boys 
attaining the Eagle rank at the same 
time. U.S. Congressman Del Clawson 
presented the awards to the boys. Be- 
sides being fine Scouts, they are 
good money-raisers. They recently 
staged a very successful waffle dinner 



and auction, and with the funds raised 
they bought much-needed camp equip- 
ment. Pictured are: top row, Scout- 
masters Ed Robinson and Dr. G. Arnold 
Davis; second row, Steven Davis, Jeffrey 
Taylor, and Mark Robinson; front row, 
Brian Chapman, Bruce Chapman, and 
John Boyle. 




DELTA, UTAH . . . This is a realization 
of a dream come true. Almost ten years 
ago Brother Cecil Losee was asked to 
be Scoutmaster of Troop 141, Delta 
Second Ward, Deseret (Utah) Stake. At 
that time his oldest son, Gary, was just 
entering the Boy Scouts. Brother 
Losee's enthusiasm for this assignment 
was overwhelming: he loved the Scout 
program, he enjoyed camping and 
working with young boys, and he wanted 
to see all of his sons attain the dis- 
tinguished rank of Eagle Scout. 

The five Eagle Scouts are: Gary, 22, 
who has filled a mission in the East 
Central States; Paul, 21, who has filled 
a mission in the British South Mission; 
Mark, 18, who is anxiously looking for- 
ward to his mission call; Blair, 16, and 



Floyd, 14. The older boys have also 
received their Duty to God awards. 
Gary, Paul, and Mark, who are now 
attending college, live together in a 
small trailer house. They are active in 
their college wards, and Paul is a stake 
missionary. 

Brother Losee's scouting assignment 
came to an end last September with the 
call to serve as first counselor in the 
bishopric. In a court of honor in Novem- 
ber, the boys' mother, Ava Bishop 
Losee, was presented a special eagle 
necklace with five eagles on it. The 
Losee family also includes three small 
daughters, Celia, Nancy, and Ranae. 

In the photograph are, back row, 
Blair, Gary, Paul, Floyd; front, Mark, 
Cecil Losee. 




co know 



BOUNTIFUL, UTAH . . . There are ten 
Eagle Scouts this year in Troop 263 in 
Bountiful 30th Ward. Eight of them re- 
ceived the award during one court of 
honor this year. Pictured are: front row, 
left to right, Dean Larson, Russell Park- 



er, Lynn Roe, Jeff Hatch; second row, 
Brad Barnett, Brad Jones, Kent Stanger, 
Kurt Stevenson, Gaylen Brown, and 
Richard Cannon; back row, Scoutmas- 
ters Cloyd Brown, Garn Nelson, and 
Robert Wilson. 



(Though we can't make a practice of 
printing pictures like these tor the 
whole Church, they seemed especially 
worthy of mention at this time.- — The 
Editors) 




FT. LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA . . . This 
ward's basketball team has won the 
regional meets in the women's divisions 
for four straight years in a row. They 



have won the coveted stake sportsman- 
ship trophy twice and the regional 
sportsmanship trophy three times. Left 
to right, top row, Kathy Black, Peggy 



Cooper, captain, Erni Hamel, Sue Win- 
ston, and Carolyn Robbins; front, Carol 
Haynes, Carolyn Barnes, Diane Under- 
bill, Debra Strelow, Wanda Mears. 



Era, March 1970 55 



TEST YOUR 





You claim to be internationally minded. 
You are proud of your interest in the world. 
You admit to having cosmopolitan tastes, of 
being well traveled. You boast of friends 
all over the globe. Great ! But can you name 
the nationalities of the youths pictured 
here, or can you identify the locales? 



Answers to: "Test Your Internationally!" 

aouajajuoa muof. o) saie8a|aa :eoujv M?nos ■£! 

pafOjd 3JBJ|9M 

joj dnjAs 8|dew joj 3u{||up ,,jaddBS,, v :pue|3u3 mbn "gi 

pasap aip, uo ^88nq auna :SBxai n 

jaump poomsauj :ueder oi 

a^aadBj u| jauunj Xejay MJiqei '6 

Ae|d vilM :P"E|U!d 8 
japjoq 

ueoixaiAi jeau aouaja^uoo mno^ :b]ujoj!|bo 'ogaia ubs L 

apejed Ajemud am Buipsai joIbiu ainja :u.Bin '3|aooi 9 

HZBjg 

m isajqjno/; ui sjuejsajuoD /Bj3or ibduouiv mnos g 

aouajajuoo L|}nort jb aiue8 ||eqAa||o/\ :bbjo>| -^ 

jsuno} 

^B|d BmBAiAsuuad uiojj suoujjo/j "O'a 'uo}8u!1|sbm £ 

isajoj wbuSuihon pauisj s.poon Ujqoy :puB|3u3 'Z 

s;a| 

q}!« pa}B|n}ejSuoo Huiaq jajsis pazijdsq A|Mafy| :mbmbh 'I 



56 




\ 




Era, March 1970 57 




• Flashing sticks battle for the 
white rubber ball. The shorts and 
lightweight shoes tell you this is 
a game of speed, but the helmets 
and the padding on the arms and 
the thick gloves tell you that this 
is a rough game, too. The fast- 
moving, hard-driving game of la- 
crosse has captured the Novato 
(California) Ward. 

Lacrosse, sometimes called dry- 
land hockey, is possibly the oldest 
sport in America. It was being 
played by the Indians of north- 
eastern United States and Canada 
at the time of the early French 
exploration of North America. It is 
a hard-contested game in which 
emotions are easily aroused. Con- 
stant movement of players in 
quickly changing offensive and 
defensive patterns creates many 
opportunities for individual per- 
formances. It is a game in which 
the little man is pitted against the 
big man. Skillful stick-handling, 
speed, and determination make up 
for the lack of size and strength. 
While lacrosse requires less brawn 
than a sport such as football, it 
does demand quickness and the 
desire for personal combat that 
the American Indians brought to 
it. The Cherokees, in fact, called it 
"the little brother of war." 

One day last year, the ward 
YMMIA superintendent, Harold 
Gingrich, was telling one of the 
ward's stake missionaries, Richard 
Brown, about the need for activity 
that would keep the interest of the 



boys in the Explorer and Ensign 
groups. Dick is a member of the 
Marin County Lacrosse Club, which 
plays in the Northern California 
Lacrosse League, and is also a 
qualified referee. In conference 
with the bishop, Dick met with the 
priests and teachers to explain the 
game and see if there was interest 
in forming a team. Almost all the 
members of the priests quorum 
were interested, even though they 
had never seen the game. The 
Northern California Lacrosse Asso- 
ciation donated sticks and loaned 
helmets, gloves, arm pads, and 
jerseys needed to get the team 
started. 

The turnout for the first practice 
sessions was more than encourag- 
ing. The enthusiasm for the new 
game spread and five nonmember 
boys joined the eleven ward mem- 
bers on the team. 

Since this is a junior league 
team, they use one goalie and five 
other players on a smaller field 
than varsity teams, which use ten 
players. The game is fast, with 
players continually on the run, 
and because of the vigorous nature 
of the game, players are rotated 
in platoons frequently, giving all 
the boys a chance to play. The 
slightly rough body contact and the 
flashing, whacking sticks may 
cause a few bruises, but injuries 
are minor. The boys love it! Skill, 
strength, speed, and endurance all 
contribute to good, exciting la- 
crosse, o 



58 Era, March 1970 



Advertisement 



ENOUGH ROPE 

by Arthur V Watkins 

The inside story of the censure 
of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy by his colleagues. 



On August 12, 1954, the 
United States Senate authorized 
a Select Committee to study 
the charge against Joseph R. 
McCarthy of "conduct 
unbecoming a member of the 
Senate." Arthur V. Watkins, 
the Senator from Utah, was 
named Chairman by Vice 
President Richard Nixon and 
immediately announced his 
plan to conduct a "judicial 
hearing'' in a "judicial 

atmosphere." 
Now, from the perspective of 

fifteen years after the 

controversial hearings that 

signalled the end of a turbulent 

career and a fearsome era in 

American public life, Senator 

Watkins has written this 

inside story. 

The great source of Senator Watkins' 

strength in standing up to the pressures of 

that time lay in the staunch religious 

faith he has always had. This is a story of 

inspiration for all Americans, but 

it is a special message of courage and dedication 




President Eisenhower, Senator 
President McKay 
1952 



Watkins, 



Dear Senator Watkins: 

Now that your victory is won, permit 
me to extend to you many hearty 
congratulations and high commendation 
for your clarity, sound judgment, 
and true dignity manifested throughout 
the entire hearing and the final 
disposition of this most difficult case. 
You have won merited honor 
to yourself, retained the prestige of the 
Senate, and brought credit to 
your state and to the nation. 
May health and the blessings 
of the Lord continue to attend you. 

Cordially and sincerely 
your friend and brother, 

David 0. McKay 

December 11, 1954 



to duty for members of the 
Church. The University of Utah Press is pleased 
to offer the book to ERA readers, for this one 
time only, for $6.00 including postage. 
This special price will be given only when the 
attached coupon is used or when reference p— -— __ 
to this ad is made in your order. / Vl\jnttn tw 



From the national reviews: 



"... it is a revealing portrait of a genteel con- 
servative reacting with fortitude and sustained 
by prayer in his attempts to deal with the row- 
dy tactics of America's most accomplished anti- 
communist." r, „ , n 

Saturday Review 

"Two things are notable in Watkins' book. 
First, his absolute honesty; second, his dispas- 
sionate manner of presenting facts. 

Salt Lake Tribune 

"For a time in the early and mid-50's . . . Sen. 
Joseph McCarthy threatened to disrupt the 
process of government and paralyze the United 
States Senate. 

Then, after years of pandemonium and al- 
most despair on the part of his hapless victims, 
the seemingly irrepressible gladiator in the 
phony war against Communism was toppled 
from his perch. The feat was accomplished by 
an unassuming legislator with an unsuspected 



streak of iron in his constitution . . . That soft- 
spoken Senator, Arthur V. Watkins of Utah, 
now tells the story of his strange confrontation 
with the Communist-eating dragon in the vol- 
ume here under review. . . . 

With Watkins in firm control, the [Select 
Committee of the Senate] moved on to finish 
its hearings in a judicial atmosphere, to shape 
the censure charges and to win a resounding 
vote on the floor which soon put an end to 
McCarthyism. 

It is a dramatic story of an unforgettable 
chapter in our history. . . .'" 

The Washington Post 

"Hopefully, the book's express and implicit 
lessons will be perceived. Certainly the nation 
has historically been preserved by men who 
confront crisis with quiet strength and dignity. 
Arthur V. Watkins was such a man in his day. 
We have need of such men again today. 

Sunday-Telegram, Portland, Maine 




University of 

Utah Press 

Salt Lake Citv, Utah 

84112 

Please send me copies of Senator 

Watkins' book "Enough Rope" at $6.00 per 

copy (including postage). I enclose $ 

in full payment. 



NAME 
ADDRESS 

CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



(Utah residents please add 4Vfh sales tax.) 



Genealogy 



Genealogical Research In 

ASIA 



• What kind of source materials 
available in Asian countries can be 
used for genealogical research? 
What kinds of information do they 
give? How early can a pedigree 
be successfully traced by using 
these materials? These are ques- 
tions that are asked by the curious 
as well as the sincere genealogist, 
especially those who have heard 
whispers of the clan-oriented so- 
ciety that exists in China and 
Korea today and that existed in 
Japan until the Meiji Restoration. 

To the Asian the word "family" 
has a little different definition than 
to Westerners. For the lack of a 
better word, we might call the 
Asian family a clan, comprising all 
of the descendants of a certain 
progenitor. Thus, many genealogi- 
cal records have originated from 
this type of family system. The clan 
genealogies that were maintained 
in similar format in both China and 
Korea are the result of a specifically 
appointed compilation committee. 
This committee, sponsored by the 
clan organization, gathered and 
published the vital information of 
descendants of a common ancestor. 

One good example is the gene- 
alogy of the descendants of the 
Chinese philosopher Confucius, 



By John W. Orton 

who lived during the fifth century 
B.C. A reprint of the 1682 edition 
of this genealogy, owned by Kung 
Te Cheng, a direct descendant of 
Confucius, was recently completed 
by the National Central Library of 
the Republic of China, and a copy 
of this three-volume set, which 
contains an uninterrupted lineage of 
2,500 years, was presented to the 
Genealogical Society by Peter 
Chang during the recent World 
Conference on Records. Clan 
genealogies are also available for 
Vietnam, Ryukyu Islands, Mon- 
golia, and Manchuria. 

In the absence of the clan gene- 
alogy or the associated clan records, 
another genealogical source for 
China that has been collected wide- 
ly by Western libraries is the local 
history, or fang-chih. Similar in 
content to the county histories so 
popular in the United States during 
the latter half of the nineteenth 
century, the local history usually 
includes a section on residents of 
the locality, with additional data 
on influential families and those 
who have more illustrious ancestors. 



The most frequently used source 
by the Japanese Saints in compiling 
their family group sheets is the 
koseki. The present civil registra- 
tion system, which dates from 1871, 
is an outgrowth of an earlier sys- 
tem, which is known to date from 
646 a.d. and alleged to date from 
86 b.c. Rather than a civil registra- 
tion, the koseki is a household 
registration that might be compared 
to a combination of a United States 
census and vital statistics registra- 
tion. The one exception is that the 
koseki may include up to three 
generations in one household regis- 
tration. Japan is responsible for 
establishing a population registra- 
tion in Korea and Taiwan, over 
which it became protectorate dur- 
ing its expansion period. 

The most frequently used source 
in Japan is the family genealogy, 
or kafu, compiled by the family 
elder or the eldest son. These 
genealogies are compiled from 
documents that are drawn up at 
the close of each family celebration, 
such as births, marriages, and 
deaths. This source is still widely 



John W. Orton, Genealogical Society research specialist for East Asia, travels 
annually to East Asian countries and consults widely with experts in his 
assignment to increase genealogical source material for the Church. 



60 



maintained among traditional fam- 
ilies. 

During the period from 1603 to 
1868, Japan was ruled by the 
Tokugawa military government. 
The shumon aratame cho (exam- 
ination of religion register ) and the 
goningumi cho ( five men in a group 
register) are the most commonly 
used genealogical sources dating 
from this period. 

Christianity flourished at its in- 
troduction into Japan during the 
sixteenth century, mainly because it 
received the support of Oda No- 
bunaga, the feudal lord who began 
a reunification movement in Japan 
and who feared that the power 
being attained by the Buddhist 
sects might be a threat to his own 
feudal rule. It has been estimated 
that as many as 500,000 Japanese 
became baptized Christians during 
this period. Shortly after Toyotomi 
Hideyoshi came into power, he 
placed a ban on Christianity, since 
he suspected that Christian mis- 
sionaries would be forerunners of 
colonial conquest, as had happened 
in other parts of Asia. The Toku- 
gawa shoguns increased the perse- 
cution of the Christians and, as a 
method of control, instituted the 
shumon aratame cho. Aside from 
avowing that an individual was a 
devout Buddhist and listing the 
sect, name, and location of his 
temple, the register usually in- 
cluded the following genealogical 
items: name, age, sex, and resi- 
dence for each member of the fam- 
ily unit. 

The goningumi cho was probably 
patterned after a similar registra- 
tion in China. In principle, the 
registration law made five men 
equally responsible for the acts of 
one of their group. Because this 
was the basic unit for controlling 
religion, this register had a close 
connection with the shumon ara- 
tame cho. However, in addition it 
had the function of communicating 



Era, March 1970 61 



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orders from the shogunate, the rul- 
ing office of Japan during this 
period, and distributing the re- 
sponsibility for the payment of tax. 

The compilation of genealogical 
records is not new to the Japanese. 
The earliest effort to compile an 
authoritative genealogical record of 
clans that is still extant was com- 
pleted in 815 and was entitled 
Shinsen Shojiroku (New Record 
of the Clans). This 30- volume set 
included a record of 1,182 clans. 
Although not in its original form, 
the Kojiki (Record of Ancient 
Matters), completed in 712, is a 
compilation of the genealogy of the 
Imperial family. In these early 
works, reference is made to Teiki, 
Kyuji, Tennoki, and Kokki, earlier 
genealogical compilations that are 
no longer extant. 

Korea, influenced heavily by 
Chinese culture during the earlier 
period, has retained, perhaps to a 
stricter degree than China itself, 
the custom of maintaining the tra- 
ditional records. In addition to clan 
genealogies and local histories, the 
civil service examination rosters, 
maintained from the beginning of 
the Yi dynasty (1392) until they 
were abolished in 1894, are an ex- 
cellent source for those who hold a 
government or military position. 
These rosters may include such in- 
formation as name, birth date, clan 
seat and place of residence, names 
of brothers, and up to eight gen- 
erations of one's paternal line and 
his mother's paternal line. 

Ho-juk is a triennual census that 
was also enumerated during the Yi 
dynasty. In type of information 
given, ho-fuk may be compared to 
an English census record, giving 
age and place of birth for the mem- 
bers of the household; but in addi- 
tion ho-fuk lists three paternal 
generations plus the mother's 
father for each member of the 
household, including slaves. 

The Philippine Islands were dis- 

62 



covered by the Spanish in 1521. 
with the first successful settlement 
dating from 1565. Fortunately for 
the genealogist, the Code of the 
Canon Law requires that every 
Roman Catholic parish maintain 
the records of status animarum 
according to a standard form, in- 
cluding the registers of baptism, 
marriage, and death. The earliest 
registers in the Philippines date 
from 1572. The Dominican mission- 
aries who entered the Philippines 
in 1587 are the only order of the 
five missionary orders that labored 
in the Philippines to have main- 
tained their records there. These 
will be found in the Dominican 
Archives of the University of Santo 
Tomas. 

The Philippines is one of the 
very few countries in Asia that 
can boast a national archives. It 
maintains records from both the 
Spanish and the American periods. 
A recent discovery is eleven and a 
half million documents dating from 
the Spanish period. As a result of 
the Spanish American War, the 
Philippines came under the control 
of the United States in 1898. The 
first official census of 1903 and sub- 
sequent enumerations have since 
been sold for wastepaper, but a 
civil registration law was enacted 
in 1900, and some registers of 
births, marriages, and deaths will 
be found in local registry offices. 

Something should also be said 
concerning memorized genealogies 
that are still extant, at least among 
the Bontoc and Ifugao tribes of the 
Mountain Province. The custom of 
memorizing genealogies apparently 
once flourished through most of 
Asia among traditional societies. 
Usually a specific person was ap- 
pointed to memorize the genealogy 
of the family. The Philippines may 
be one of the few remaining coun- 
tries with a segment of its society 
still able to recite genealogies in 
oral form. 



The Asian people seem to have a 
natural understanding and appre- 
ciation of the relationship between 
an individual and his ancestors. 
Members of the Church in Asia are 
utilizing this expanse of records to 
identify their ancestors, and under 
great financial sacrifice they are 
making plans to go to the temples 
to have the temple ordinances per- 
formed for their families. To assist 



the Saints in reaching this goal, the 
missions in Asia are organizing 
temple excursions. Three very 
successful excursions from Japan to 
the Hawaii Temple have already 
been completed, with a fourth 
planned for August in conjunction 
with the Korean Mission, and a 
fifth excursion, to the Salt Lake 
Temple, is planned to correspond 
with October general conference. 



"The 
Spoken Word 



"The Spoken Word" from Tem- 
ple Square, presented over KSL 
and the Columbia. Broadcasting 
System December 7, 1969.© 1969. 



// 



"There are two who will know . 

By Richard L. Evans 

Wf hen I left my home to go away to school/' said a thoughtful 
son,"my father said to me: 'No matter what you think or what 
you do, there are two who will know— you and the Father of 
us all.'" This may not have a very modern sound, but it answers some 
questions. Even if all the world doesn't know, even if our family and 
friends don't know, there are still two who know. And even if there 
were only one — even for those who don't acknowledge an eternal 
record, a living God and personal relationship to him, still—/ know— 
you know — each man knows that which concerns himself. Now, as to 
the questions, or one of them at least: With people breaking the com- 
mandments, or not acknowledging them: departing from honesty, 
virtue, morality; setting aside time-honored standards and restraints; 
doing just what they want to do, supposedly— or at least doing as they 
profess to please — well, if they are living just like they want to live, 
why aren't they happy? Why are they still arguing with themselves in- 
side—and with others— uneasy, feeling cheated, unsatisfied, with a 
gnawing accusation within? Elbert Hubbard gave one answer when he 
said, "Men are punished by their sins, not for them." 1 In a sense, such 
laws enforce themselves. By his very nature man is what he is. And if 
he lives one way, he gets one result. If he lives another way, he gets 
another result. It is true that people have been variously taught and 
conditioned by teaching and training, but there is something basic that 
works within, as we run with or against the light; and men become 
refined or coarse, easy or uneasy, happy or unhappy, self-respecting 
or self-accusing by how they live their lives. There is only one way to 
find personal peace and an inner respect, and it can't be done by living 
against the counsel God has given. To return to the opening sentence: 
"No matter what you think or what you do, there are two who will 
know"— and even if there were only one, it still wouldn't be a very 
good gamble. 



'Elbert Hubbard, Philistine, Vol. XI, p. 77. 



The Genealogical Society actively 
cooperates with and encourages the 
missions of Asia in their genealogi- 
cal programs. A small staff in the 
examining department gives special 
attention to family group sheets. 
Two staff members in the research 
department devote full time to dis- 
covering and evaluating source ma- 
terials that may be used for Asian 
genealogical research. They are 
also responsible for disseminating 
this information through research 
papers and developing aids that 
will assist individual researchers 
and the Asian genealogical pro- 
grams. 

One long-range project that is 
now over half completed is a 
Japanese surname catalog, which 
will have a total of more than 80,000 
surnames. A records submission 
manual is being written, adapted to 
special problems of processing 
Japanese family group sheets. A 
research paper, "Major Genealogi- 
cal Sources in Japan," should also 
be in print by early 1971. Negotia- 
tions for microfilming are underway 
in Korea and planned for at least 
two other Asian countries. 

The World Conference on Rec- 
ords was a major boon to genealogy 
in Asia as well as other parts of the 
world. Through the conference the 
Genealogical Society gained many 
friends who are offering their 
knowledge of Asian records and as- 
sistance to the Society's acquisitions 
program. Representatives of the 
national libraries of four major 
Asian countries were present, as 
well as internationally recognized 
scholars of genealogy, records 
sources, and depositories. 

Thus the Saints in Asia are pre- 
paring themselves to meet the chal- 
lenges of the future, fulfilling the 
admonition of the Prophet Joseph 
Smith that "the greatest responsi- 
bility in this world that God has 
laid upon us is to seek after our 
dead." Q 



Era, March 1970 63 



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Buffs and Rebuffs 



In the Beginning 

My wife and I always enjoy our copy of 
the Era. However, the January issue and 
the article "In the Beginning" were very 
special to us, and a source of inspiration. 
We did find a "spirit of joy and testi- 
mony" in that article. 

Phillip A. David 

San Dimas, California 

The January Era was beautiful— even our 

five-year-old enjoyed the pictures. We 
were all impressed with the scholarly 
articles, which help us to have a greater 
appreciation for the miracle of the Crea- 
tion. 

Mary Ellen Jolley 
Salt Lake City 

I enjoyed very much the article "In the 
Beginning," but I found a noticeable mis- 
take on page 36, wherein the diameter of 
the earth is said to be 24,000 miles wide. 
I believe it is about 7,926.56 miles. 

Ernest Terry 
Payson, Utah 

You're right. 

What Can We Read? 

In response to letters in the October and 
January "Buffs" on what Latter-day 
Saints can read: As an English teacher 
and an avid reader I understand the dif- 
ficulty many people have in finding good 
reading material. However, I have found 
that there are many excellent books for 
young people and adults. Public and 
school and university libraries are stocked 
with the classics as well as modern litera- 
ture that can teach and uplift us. It 
takes a bit more looking, that is all. An- 
other excellent source is the Relief Society 
cultural refinement lesson series, Out of 
the Best Books. 

Mrs. T. J. Burrows 
Livermore, California 



Research & Review 

I was so impressed with the first of the 
articles in the new "Research & Review" 
department. To me, the statistics from 
Brother Killian's thesis on the objectives 
of the seminary system were extremely in- 
teresting and vital. As a senior in high 
school, I find myself asking the same 
questions about the gospel that those 
students involved in the survey asked, 
and after a brief survey I have found that 
my friends also have a deep concern for 
making gospel principles a deeper, more 
instrinsie part of their lives. Could you 
please print more such articles dealing 
with these topics? The youth of the 
Church would gain much from them. 

Kristy Coon 
Salt Lake City 

I was thrilled to see the new feature "Re- 
search & Review." This, I believe, will 
give the Era wider coverage. Brother 
Payne's review of Brother Killian's thesis 
was a wise choice to start off the feature. 
We as teachers need this kind of informa- 
tion. 



Also, I liked the article and pictures on 
the Creation, especially the first part on 
the size and magnitude of God's creations. 
I have tried to put this in terms young 
people could understand, but have failed. 
Thus I was especially pleased to see some 
of our scientists tackle the job. 

Keith W. Perkins 
Institute of Religion 
Tempe, Arizona 



"Research & Review" is the most hopeful 
new trend I have seen in the Era for a 
long time. The article on "The Religious 
Concerns of Our Youth" expresses the 
attitudes of the youth who desire to be 
faithful, whatever their age. I look for- 
ward eagerly to future articles in this 
department. 

Rhoda Thurston 
Hyde Park, Utah 



The 
Spoken Word 



"The Spoken Word" from 
Temple Square, presented 
over KSL and the Colum- 
bia Broadcasting System 
December 28, 1969. ©1969. 



The past is to learn from, not to live in 

By Richard L. Evans 

From a thoughtful mood, for a thoughtful mo- 
ment, comes this reminder: The past is to learn 
from, not to live in. Our thoughts move in many 
directions, with the events of each day, with the 
mood of each moment. We waver often between 
discouragement and confidence, between regret and 
gratitude, wishing we had done better and hoping 
we might do better — searching ourselves, looking for 
values, for guidelines in life — loving the earth we live 
on, yet somehow sensing that we are on a journey 
that moves us on, through time and to eternity. We 
all have days of discouragement. "Sometimes the 
hardest thing in life is simply to put one foot in front 
of the other — to keep going," as one observer said. 
"And, sometimes, the most worthwhile things . . . are 
accomplished ... by people who are struggling not 
for greatness, . . . but simply ... to keep going."' And 
there is quiet heroism and goodness and earnest pur- 
pose on the part of many wonderful people, despite 
all failures and imperfections. There is evil in the 
world. There is also good. It is for us to learn and 
choose between the two; to increase in self-disci- 
pline, in competence, in kindness; to keep going — 
putting one foot in front of the other — one day, one 
hour, one moment, one task at a time. There is no 
point in giving up in regret, for life is a process of 
repentance, of improvement, and will justify all the 
trial and error and effort, as we keep moving, with 
patience and purpose. "Have courage for the great 
sorrows of life, and patience for the small ones," 
wrote Victor Hugo; "and when you have laboriously 
accomplished your daily task, go to sleep in peace. 
God is awake." 2 The past is to learn from, not to live 
in. 



'"Try One Inning," Capsuled Comments, September 1969. 



Era, March 1970 65 




By Florence Bittner 



• My summer garden is for enjoyment, and it is the 
result of spring effort. 

Spring usually catches me napping, and it takes a 
while for my enthusiasm to build up to battle heat. 
By the time I have my on-my-knees-in-the-dirt armor 
on, the weeds have been growing for weeks; and weeds 
don't wait. They use every chance they get. 

Once I have decided it's gardening season, I enjoy 
getting out and doing battle. I rake and spade and 
fight staunchly for weeks. My spring enthusiasm for 
dirt under my nails lasts until the weather gets really 
hot; then I retire from the battlefield to the sidelines, 
where I cheer lustily for my flowers. 

But the saucy little dandelions don't need sideline 
boosters, and they don't wilt in the heat. They jut 
their chins and soak up the sun, and they just keep 
growing. 

That's the reason they survive. I can't help admir- 



ing dandelions' attitudes. They just keep working 
away. They don't get their feelings hurt, they don't get 
discouraged if they aren't fully appreciated, and they 
don't need to be coddled and coaxed. 

Why don't begonias act like that? Or roses? 

I know begonia people, and if I were growing 
people instead of flowers I'd concentrate on the dande- 
lions. Who wants to be bothered with the begonias 
of life— people who have to be coaxed and appreciated 
and encouraged and assisted? They are lovely to be- 
hold, but such fragile beauty. One breath of adversity 
and they wilt. 

Give me dandelions every time. They just keep 
slogging away and are more interested in getting the 
job done than worrying about who gets the credit. 

I'm not growing people this year— at least not out 
in the flower beds, so I root out the diligent little 
weeds and toss them into the trash pile. I do it re- 



66 Era, March 1970 



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luctantly, feeling somewhat wanton, uprooting all that 
life, destroying all that latent energy. 

But as I turn back to my flowers, I notice a spray 
of white fuzz still on the ground, and a smile comes. 
The dandelions may have the last word yet. 

Then there are the petunias of my garden. What 
would gardens be without petunias? So much show 
from such an unpromising little bit of green, and they 
just keep right on producing all year long. All they 
need is the essentials to work with and they're off and 
blooming. 

I tuck a few petunias around the sides of my peonies. 
Such magnificence from these lush fruitful flowers. 
While they last they fill my garden with flamboyant 
color, but in a few short weeks it is all gone. That is 
when the sturdy little petunias take over and keep 
producing bloom after bloom all summer and until 
frost nips the edges of the flowers. 



I had a peony friend. One great splash of effort- 
one splendid production, but after the tumult and the 
shouting died and the spotlights were turned off, she 
faded and was heard from no more. 

The chrysanthemums are drooping, so I tie them to 
stakes; then I loosen the soil around their roots. All 
spring and summer these regal beauties are absorbing 
sun and food, preparing themselves for that final burst 
of glory that meets frost head up. Petunias endure to 
the end; chrysanthemums are the end. 

Uncle Andy was a chrysanthemum person. He never 
really amounted to much until the last few years of 
his life, when something turned him on. He accom- 
plished a great deal those last years. 

One day I told him how proud we were of him, and 
he said, "I keep thinking of how much I could have 
done if I had just started sooner." 

There's a crick in my back when I straighten up 
from tying the chrysanthemums, and as I massage the 
ache, a petunia winks at me from the edge of the 
peony plant, 

I wish I could hire a few petunias and dandelions to 
work for me. Petunia people give more than is ex- 
pected. They surprise you. They're producers and 
oh so dependable. 

Dandelions have perseverance and stamina. If they 
could just be made to obey the rules of accepted garden 
conduct, they'd be ideal flowers. Unfortunately they 
persist in being found where they've no business being. 
They will not accept discipline. 

"Warren," I call to my young son, who is scooting 
down the drive on his bicycle. "Before you go, bring 
me that pail of fertilizer. I need to feed the roses." 

Reluctantly he descends from his bike and brings 
the pail to me. "How come you have to feed the 
roses again?" 

We both laugh, remembering our eleventh com- 
mandment, which reminds mother, "Thou shalt feed 
thy sons often that their legs may grow long upon the 
land, for it behooveth a mother to remember her boys 
are always hungry." 

As I dig around the roots of my roses, I hope I can 
feed the minds of my children in the spring of their 
lives so their summers may be filled with bloom and 
their autumns be fruitful. 

But it is a garden I'm growing, so I chuck a tempera- 
mental rose under the chin and tell her not to worry. 
I don't care if she is petulant and petted. She makes 
up for it in the sheer beauty she creates. 

As I gather up my trowel and rake to go into the 
house to feed my human sprouts, I see a baby dande- 
lion hiding in the grass and I look the other way. I'm 
not as ruthless as all that. O 



68 Era, March 1970 



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July 30 to August 16, 1970-$1154. 

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June 9 to July 14, 1970- $2145. 



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A study in contrast with visits to the 
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Travel director: Dr. Richard L. Gunn. 
June 18 to July 23, 1970-$2350. 

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The "real" Orient is brought alive in 
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D Hawaiian Adult Tour 

□ Osaka and Beyond 

□ Summer in Hawaii 

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D Summer in Mexico 

□ Mexico for Teachers 

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D Adventure South America 
D Europe on a Shoestring 
D Splendid Scandinavia 
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D Asian Studies Abroad 

1971 SEMESTER ABROAD 
PROGRAMS 

D Semester in Salzburg 
D Semester in Grenoble 

□ Semester in Madrid 

□ Semester in Jerusalem 



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BYU TRAVEL STUDY 

202 Herald R. Clark Bldg. 
Brigham Young University 
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Research 
& Review 



AStudyoftheTextof 
the Inspired Revision of the 

BIBLE 



By Dr. Truman G. Madsen 
Contributing Editor 



• From the earliest days of the Church, 
Latter-day Saints have depended heav- 
ily on the King James Version of the 
Bible. It provides common ground in 
many countries where missionary ef- 
forts extend. It has a tone and temper 
that make readings in contemporary 
versions seem foreign, against the grain 
of familiarity. This is so even of the 
highly sensitive work of Britain's J. B. 
Phillips. Moreover, some biblical ver- 
sions, though professing only stylistic 
or idiomatic change, tend at bottom 
to undercut vital doctrines. President 
J. Reuben Clark, Jr., called attention 
some years ago to such distortions. (See 
his Why the King James Version?) 

In our background is a Bible trans- 
lation undertaken by the Prophet 
Joseph Smith and based on the King 
James. It has been called the New 
Translation, the Inspired Translation, 
the Inspired Version, and the Inspired 
Revision. 

In sermons, manuals, and special- 
ized research it is often cited but 
always with some uneasiness because 
of three haunting unknowns: 

1. The original manuscript notes of 
the work were given to the Reorganized 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints by Emma Smith. In their first 
published edition, in 1867, 3,400 verses 
were different from the King James. 
The question was, how accurate was 
this edition? Had changes been made 
since the Prophet's death? And what 
of the "New Corrected Edition" pub- 
lished in which 352 verses differ from 
the earlier printing? 

2. A copy of the original was made 
by Dr. John M. Bernhisel at Nauvoo 
in 1845 and is now in the Church 
Historian's Office in Salt Lake City but 
has never been published. (It was used 
by Elder Bruce R. McConkie in his 
Doctrinal New Testament Commen- 
tary.) Was this copy itself accurate? 



How would it fare in a verse by verse 
comparison to the two published edi- 
tions of the Reorganized Church? 

3. The Prophet did most of the re- 
vision during the years 1830-33. He 
made changes in every book (except the 
Song of Solomon, which, he indicated, 
was not inspired of God). Did he con- 
sider any one of the books finished? 
Dr. Sidney B. Sperry had pointed to evi- 
dence that the Prophet intended further 
corrections, perhaps in every book, but 
what would the Prophet's own manu- 
script show? 

Years of painstaking research by Dr. 
Robert J. Matthews of the Church 
Unified School System enables us to 
answer these questions.* 

With the cooperation of the his- 
torians of both churches, the Institute 
of Mormon Studies at Brigham Young 
University, and other interested agen- 
cies, Dr. Matthews has compared, verse 
by verse, the Bernhisel manuscript, the 
two editions of the Reorganized 
Church, and, in several cases of variant 
readings, the original manuscript of 
the work in the library at Indepen- 
dence. 

His study enables us to say: 

1. The recent 1944 New Corrected 
Edition of the Reorganized Church, 
which book many interested Latter-day 
Saints have acquired, is faithful to the 
original manuscript and a most accu- 
rate printing. The editors have scrupu- 
lously worked to overcome normal 
scribal mistakes, typographical errors, 
and difficult notations (e.g., transposed 
sentences or confusing marginal nota- 
tions). Matthews concludes that this 
edition is worthy of trust. 

2. The Bernhisel manuscript copy- 
supports the 1944 New Corrected Edi- 
tion in preference to the earlier (1867) 



*Robert J. Matthews, A Study of the Text of the 
Inspired Version of the Bible, doctoral dissertation, 
Brigham Young University. 



edition. Thus, by implication, it sup- 
ports the original manuscript. 

3. The documents provide indica- 
tions of the mode of the Prophet's 
procedure. He often revised a passage, 
later added to or amended it, and then, 
in a third attempt, clarified it further. 
Some of his corrections are inconclusive 
because the marginal note in the text 
is not specified as to exact placement. 
In some such cases we infer that he 
saw a problem but had not yet fully 
resolved it. This suggests what other 
evidence tends to confirm: that had 
he lived longer, he might well have 
undertaken further corrections or im- 
provements. 

Glimpses of the light shed by the re- 
vision on far-reaching issues are noted 
in these five examples: 

1. The youth of Christ is almost a 
blank in biblical annals. Some pas- 
sages hint he was indifferent to his 
family. (The Douay version translates 
"brothers and sisters" as "cousins.") 
The Prophet records that he "grew up 
with his brethren," that he "served 
under his father," that he "waited 
upon the Lord" for his ministry, but 
that he "spake not as other men." At 
the marriage feast he did not say to 
his mother, "Woman, what have I to 
do with thee?" but "Woman, what 
wilt thou have me to do for thee? that 
will I do." (Inspired Revision, Matt. 
3:24, 25; John 2:4.) 

2. The controversial first verse of 
John, "In the beginning was the 
Word," has been clouded by Greek 
metaphysics. "Word" is taken to mean 
logos, and this is framed according to 
Plato and Philo as an ultimate idea or 
long step toward the immaterial icon 
of the creeds. But in the Inspired Revi- 
sion it is rendered, "In the beginning 
was the gospel preached through the 
Son." Christ was "the word" in the 
sense that he was the messenger of 
salvation. The word "word" need not 
carry Greek connotations. (Ibid., John 
1:1; compare D&C 93.) 

3. The Beatitudes are presented after 
three added verses that make it clear 
that they are more than independent 
virtues to be willfully cultivated; they 
are a description of the attitudes of soul 
that flow from receiving the Christ 
through baptism and "fire and the 
Holy Ghost." (Ibid., Matt. 5:1-14; com- 
pare 3 Nephi parallels.) It is not, for 
example, a virtue to be "poor in spirit" 
unless one comes unto him who con- 
fers the. riches of spirit — hence the 
added phrase "who come unto me." 

4. Baffling passages about "pluck- 
ing out an eye" are clarified. They are 
not pleading for physical mutilation. 
They concern the treatment of the vari- 
ous parts or organs of the "body" of 
the Church. If a leader who is a 



70 Era, March 1970 



''standard" to others offends and is un- 
repentant, he is to be "plucked out," 
for it is better to labor without him 
than to be pulled down by him. (Ibid., 
Mark 9:39-48.) 

5. The argument that "God is 
Spirit," and therefore a formless being, 
has influenced hundreds of millions in 
the Christian world. The Inspired Re- 
vision dismantles this belief. The con- 
text speaks of true worshipers and 
replaces "God is a Spirit" with "For 
unto such [true worshipers] hath God 
promised his Spirit. And they who 
worship him must worship in spirit 
and in truth." (Ibid., John 4:25, 26; 
compare D&C 46 and 93.) 

Similar insights compound through 
the four gospels, as also in the writings 
of the ancient Hebrew prophets and the 
letters of Paul. Chapters of Romans so 
central to the theology of Luther and 
Calvin, and today of Barth and Brun- 
ner, are significantly clarified. 

Dr. Matthews points out in some of 
his earlier published findings (see The 
Improvement Era, February through 
May 1965, and the International Bible 
Collector) that the preeminence of 
Christ in both the Old and New Testa- 
ments is enhanced by the Inspired Re- 
vision. 

New doors open up now. For 
example, the Inspired Revision is with- 
out cross-referencing or footnotes or 
concordance. A complete cross-refer- 
enced edition utilizing all four of the 
standard works should soon be under- 
taken, though it is a mammoth project. 
Someday, when Mormon scholarship 
merits it, a kind of "Interpreter's Bible" 
could be developed that draws on the 
new reservoir of knowledge — linguistic, 
geographic, and archaeological — that 
has built up over the past century. Since 
the Prophet's work was done mainly 
from 1830 to 1833, many doctrinal de- 
velopments, heretofore studied exclu- 
sively in terms of the revelations and 
dictated history, need to be related to 
his biblical analysis, for it is now clear 
that the Prophet was learning as he 
worked and that the translation process 
was a revelation process. Cherished 
beliefs of some critics — for example, 
that the Prophet's understanding of the 
Godhead as distinct personages came in 
the late 1830s — may dissolve under 
such analysis. To correlate the revisions 
with the day-by-day history of the 
Church is another major task, yet 
future. 

In the meantime, all who are drawn 
to the scriptures, the soul perceptions 
of the Prophet, and the unfolding of 
the modern Church can turn to the In- 
spired Revision with new confidence 
and with gratitude to all who have 
aided Dr. Robert Matthews in his pro- 
ductive enterprise. O 



71 




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DESERET NEWS 




Ricks College Dancers Complete Successful Tour of Mexican Cities 



Some 33 members of the Ricks College Valhalla 
International Dancers recently completed a three-week 
tour of cities throughout Mexico. U.S. Embassy 
personnel and Mexican municipal and civic leaders called 



the troupe "a great success," "a showcase of 
wholesome youth." Several mission presidents said 
the troupe "helped cement our relations with the 
wonderful Mexican people." 





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French Mission Presents Program at Versailles 

Although the news is late, members 
of the Church will be pleased to know of 
the French Mission's successful 
Christmas event held for friends and 
associates of members of the Church. 
The occasion consisted of a brief 
buffet before guests entered the chapel, 
where instrumentalists played 
renaissance Christmas music on fifteenth 



century instruments. Following this 

performance, French Mission President 

Smith B. Griffin and the president 

of the Versailles Branch spoke. The buffet 

continued, after which a group of 

singers from Paris sang a cappella 

renaissance Christmas medleys. 

The instrumentalists and singers were 

non-Mormon. The program, which drew 



wide press and television coverage, 
was attended by about 500 persons, 
including the mayor of Versailles 
and his executive secretary, 
special representatives from the 
American Embassy, mayors of several 
surrounding cities, 

and the representative of the governor 
of the Region Yvelines. 



72 




Lucile C. Reading Florence Reece Lane 

New Counselors in Primary Association Announced 



Sister Lucile C. Reading 
has been advanced from 
second counselor to 
first counselor in the 
General Primary Presidency, 
and Sister Florence Reece 
Lane has been appointed 
second counselor. 
Sister Leone W. Doxey, 
former first counselor, 
was released in October. 
Sister Reading, who was 
appointed as second 
counselor in 1963, is 
a member of the Primary 



Children's Hospital board of 
trustees and has been 
a member of the 
Children's Friend editorial 
board for ten years. 
She will be in charge of 
the Primary's Skylet-Pilot 
programs, music, the 
Penny Parade, and the 
Children's Friend. 
Sister Lane, a member of 
the Primary general board 
since 1967, will direct 
the Lihoma, reverence, and 
in-service programs. 




Primary Children's Hospital Endowment Fund Announced 

Administrators of the Primary Children's Hospital 

have announced a $10 million endowment program designed 

to make the hospital one of the leading pediatric 

centers in the world. The endowment fund will be used 

to expand facilities and provide more and better 

service to crippled children. Thousands of children have 

been treated at the hospital since it began in 1911. 

Children of all races and creeds are welcome 

at the hospital. 




Member of National 
Boy Scout Board 

Elder Thomas S. Monson 
of the Council of the Twelve 
has been appointed a 
member of the National 
Executive Board of 
the Boy Scouts of America. 
Elder Monson, a member 
of the General Scouting 
Committee of the Church, 
is the third General 
Authority to serve on 
the national executive board. 
President George Albert 
Smith and Elder Ezra Taft 
Benson served previously. 




Regional Representative 
of Council of Twelve 

The First Presidency 
has announced the 
appointment of D. Arthur 
Haycock as a Regional 
Representative of the Council 
of the Twelve. He will be 
assigned to the Rose 
Park Region in Salt Lake City. 
Brother Haycock has had 




Air Defense Command 
Wife of the Year 

Sister Gwen Smith, 
Relief Society president of 
the Eatontown (New 
Jersey) Ward, has been 
named Army Air Defense 
Command Wife of the Year. 
The wife of Major 
William A. Smith (who is 
stationed at Highlands 
Army Air Defense Site, New 
Jersey), Sister Smith 
has carried a prominent role 
in redecorating military 
quarters, conducting 
sewing classes, and 
organizing youth athletic and 
recreation programs, 
as well as serving in the 
presidencies of the Relief 
Society or Primary auxiliaries 
wherever the family has 
been stationed. 



wide experience in Church 
service, having served as 
president of the Hawaii 
Mission, secretary of the 
Church Missionary 
Committee, a member of 
the Priesthood Missionary 
Committee, high councilor, 
bishop, private secretary 
to President George Albert 
Smith, and assistant 
secretary to the First 
Presidency. He is now 
secretary to the Council of 
the Twelve. He and his 
wife have four daughters. 



Era, March 1970 73 



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The Church 
Moves On 



January 1970 

President and Sister David 0. Mc- 
Kay quietly celebrated their sixty- 
ninth wedding anniversary, surrounded 
by their family. They were married in the 
Salt Lake Temple January 2, 1901. 

El As stake conferences resumed after 
^^ the Christmas-New Year's recess, 
two new stakes, the 497th and 498th, 
were organized in Utah: 

From the North Jordan Stake, Elder 
Mark E. Petersen of the Council of the 
Twelve organized the Granger West 
Stake, with Duayne T. Johnson as presi- 
dent and Gordon W. Evans and Benja- 
min L. Dickison as counselors. 

From the Bountiful East Stake, Elder 
Harold B. Lee of the Council of the 
Twelve organized the Woods Cross 
Stake, with David H. Howard as presi- 
dent and Garvin E. Carlile and L. Glen 
Tonge as counselors. 

New stake presidencies: Richard W. 
Winder and counselors Normand Lee 
Gibbons and Blaine D. Bendixsen, North 
Jordan Stake; Rendell N. Mabey and 
counselors Duane B. Welling and Newell 
Linford, Bountiful East Stake. 

Wl% The appointments of Mrs. Lucile C. 
^^ Reading as first counselor and Mrs. 
Florence R. Lane as second counselor 
in the general presidency of the Primary 
Association were announced. Mrs Read- 
ing, who succeeds Mrs. Leone W. Doxey 
as first counselor, has served as second 
counselor to President LaVern W. Parm- 
ley since July 1963. Mrs. Doxey was 
released last October 23. Mrs. Lane has 
been a member of the general board 
since September 1967. 

Roanoke (Virginia) Stake, the 499th 
now functioning, was organized by 
Elder Mark E. Petersen of the Council of 
the Twelve from portions of the Central 
Atlantic States Mission. Sustained as 
president was Russell B. Maddock, with 
Sanford R. Bohon, Sr., and Dennis W. 
Richardson as his counselors. 

New stake presidency: President Jack 



74 



A. Seitz and counselors Garth P. Batty 
and Bert L. Angus, Ashley Stake. 

The appointment of D. Arthur Hay- 
cock, Bountiful, Utah, as a Regional 
Representative of the Twelve was an- 
nounced. This brings the number of 
Regional Representatives to 75. 



no 



!1 President David O. McKay, 96, died 



this morning at 6:00 at his Hotel 
Utah apartment. His physician said 
President McKay died of acute conges- 
tion of the heart, which began soon after 
midnight and progressively worsened. 
He was in a coma for several hours 
prior to death. 

Fallon (Nevada) Stake was organized 
by a division of Reno Stake by Elder 
Howard W. Hunter of the Council of the 
Twelve. Gideon V. Hendrix was sus- 
tained as president, with Golden D. 
Hyde and Ellis A. Lewis as counselors. 
This stake is the 500th stake now func- 
tioning in the Church. 

fjl The body of President David 0. 
McKay was borne in a bronze 
casket today to the Church Administra- 
tion Building, where it is to lie in state 
this evening, for 12 hours on Wednes- 
day, and on Thursday morning until one 
hour before funeral services are to be- 
gin in the Salt Lake Tabernacle. This 
evening long lines of mourners, includ- 
ing many small children and teen-agers, 
filed slowly past the bier, which is 
banked with huge baskets and wreaths 
of flowers from all over the world. 

Funeral services were held at the 
Salt Lake Tabernacle at noon to- 
day for President David 0. McKay, 
ninth President of the Church, The 
funeral services, presided over and 
conducted by members of the Council 
of the Twelve, were attended by over- 
flow crowds of the Saints, as well as 
dignitaries and representatives of local, 
state, and national governments, other 
churches, and many civic and profes- 
sional organizations. Prior to the ser- 
vices, more than 41,000 persons of all 



ages and from all walks of life had 
filed past the casket as the body lay in 
state on the first floor of the Church 
Administration Building. Light rain was 
falling as the cortege entered Temple 
Square, where the Royal Scots Pipe 
Band played "Lord Lovett's Lament," a 
dirge from the highlands of Scotland, 
as the casket was borne into the flower- 
banked Tabernacle. The services were 
broadcast by 12 television and 50 radio 
stations, some on a delayed basis. Pall- 
bearers were five grandsons and one 
great-grandson of President McKay. 
Interment was in the Salt Lake City 
Cemetery, near the grave of his two- 
year-old son Royle. 

In a special meeting this morning 
in the Salt Lake Temple the Council 
of the Twelve ordained and set apart 
President Joseph Fielding Smith as the 
tenth President of the Church. The 
First Presidency was then reorganized, 
with President Harold B. Lee as first 
counselor and President N. Eldon 
Tanner as second counselor. President 
Lee also serves as president of the 
Twelve, with Elder Spencer W. Kim- 
ball as acting president. 



BQ Val Verda Stake, 501st stake now 
^^ functioning, was organized by 
President Harold B. Lee of the First 
Presidency from parts of the South 
Davis (Utah) Stake. Milton W. Russon 
was sustained as president, with Harry 
Blundell and Arlin T. Mecham as 
counselors. 

New stake presidencies: Robert J. 
Martin and counselors John D. Warner 
and Howard R. Gagon, South Davis 
Stake; Lowell T. Perry and counselors 
Gene W. Dalton and Clifford S. Clive, 
Boston Stake. 

Jj] Previously announced plans under 
which GAC Corporation would have 
acquired 265,000 acres of land in 
central Florida through purchase of the 
stock of Deseret Farms of Florida, Inc., 
will not be consummated. This an- 
nouncement was made today by S. 
Hayward Wills, New York City, chairman 
and president of GAC, and President 
N. Eldon Tanner of the First Presidency. 
They explained that delays in closing 
beyond the control of both parties have 
made the sale of the property, located 
in Osceola, Orange, and Brevard coun- 
ties, inadvisable at this time. 



Questionings 



By Paul Armstrong 



A multitude of faces I have 

known 
Have long since lost their tenure 

with the sun, 
Have faded, withered, drooped, 

and, one by one, 
Surrendered that last trait they 

called their own; 
Silence replaced the flesh and 

blood and bone, 
With features turning ghostly, 

keeping none 
Of their rich, vital color. All is 

done 



And all fine strengths are foiled 
and overthrown. 

Yet, is this all? If it were so, 

would I 
Now trace in praise the features 

I admired? 
If men like me can feel almost 

inspired 
With memory of one gentle, 

subtle bit, 
How can one total being ever die 
In the Vast Mind that once 

created it? 



Era, March 1970 75 



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After the Gale 

By Ethel Jacobson 

Churned by storm, 
White waves form 
Where gray gulls scream 
A warning. 

They come and go, 
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On living with imperfect people — 
including ourselves 

Richard L. Evans 

One of the urgent lessons of life is to learn how to live with 
imperfect people — not only with the imperfections of others 
but also with imperfections we see in ourselves. It is often true 
that we do not even please ourselves, or at least not consistently, com- 
pletely so. And if we do not altogether please ourselves, it should be 
easy for us to understand why often we are not altogether pleased with 
others. Life is variable for all of us. Sometimes we are sad, fearful, dis- 
couraged, sometimes even when we have no apparent reason to be. 
Our troubles trouble us less at some times than they do at others; not 
necessarily that the troubles are less, but we are able to live with our 
troubles at some times better than others. Human problems are complex. 
There are battles within ourselves, and battles outside ourselves. The 
good strives with us, the spirit that would lead to truth and peace and 
self-respect — the spirit that pleads to be heard and heeded — and finds 
itself in competition with the spirit that would tempt us to compromise, 
to be critical, indifferent, rebellious, to relax our standards, and do 
what sometime we shall surely regret. And since everyone has his 
struggles, his better days and worse ones, his good impulses and less 
worthy ones, his arguments inside himself; since all of us need under- 
standing, forgiveness, encouragement, all of us would well give com- 
passionate consideration to others. One quality of character most 
needed in this world is compassion for other people. One of the ur- 
gent lessons of life is to learn how to live with imperfect people—in- 
cluding ourselves. And if we are not altogether pleased with us, it 
should be easy to understand why we are not altogether pleased with 
others. As a somewhat summarizing sentence, Henry Ward Beecher said 
that every man should have a good-sized cemetery in which to bury 
the faults of his friends. 



76 Era, March 1970 



RICKS COLLEGE 




Opportunities in 

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Leadership * Activities 

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IMPORTANT DATES FOR ALUMNI 

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ANNUAL ALUMNI BANQUET AND MEETING — May 7, 1970, 6:00 P.M. at, 
Manwaring Center. Graduates, Parents, and all Alumni of Ricks College 
are cordially invited to attend. (Write for Reservations) 

The RICKS COLLEGE ALUMNI COUNCIL publishes quarterly an ALUMNI NEWS- 
LETTER and sends it free to all Alumni. This Bulletin keeps the Alumni 
organization informed of Alumni activities, School Functions, building 
programs, and Etc. 

If you are not receiving the ALUMNI NEWSLETTER, and would like it, please 
send your address. 



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Ricks College 

Rexburg, Idaho 83440 

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The Presiding Bishop 
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v jA 1/Yl A 



By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 



• Years ago President Oscar A. 
Kirkham, a member of the First 
Council of the Seventy and one of 
the Church's best known friends 
to youth, told how his father made 
the thinning of long rows of sugar 
beets more interesting and in- 
creased the ability of the thinners 
to work longer and with greater 
speed. He simply placed pegs 
down the rows at various dis- 
tances. As the young workers 
reached these pegs, they would 
stop for a short rest, a drink of 
lemonade, or perhaps a piece of 
hard rock candy. There was always 
a goal, a peg in sight, as the young 
workers looked down those long, 
long rows. 

We all need goals toward which 
to work. Years must pass before 
we reach some of our goals, such 
as acquiring the training neces- 
sary to get a good-paying job or 
preparing ourselves to found a 
happy Latter-day Saint home. 
Goals bring interest and vitality 
into our daily activities as well as 
give us the direction needed to 
achieve the major goals of life. 
So much of the motivation young 
people need in life depends on 
having the proper short- and long- 
range goals. Doing a particular 
assignment well lends interest and 
the determination to get a good 
grade in a class. Doing well in 
class spurs interest in graduating 



78 



from school and being prepared 
for a job or some other overarch- 
ing goal in life. 

The first consideration in mak- 
ing goals is to devise a plan to 
follow. Where do we start — with 
the "now" part of life? With daily 
goals? With those to be achieved 
at the end of our earthly lifetime? 
A serviceable goal in any aspect 
of life fixes one's attention on the 
final or end result first. Short- 
range goals are easier to plan and 
perhaps to follow; but if they are 
to have any value, they must clear- 
ly lead to the final or end result of 
one's total life plan. Earth life is 
a journey in eternity. Now is part 
of eternity. There is no permanent 
destination on that journey. Long- 
range goals must, therefore, be 
set up first. Where do we want to 
spend eternity? With what kind of 
people do we want to associate 
there? In what kinds of activities 
would we like to engage? Would 
we like to live in the presence of 
God the Father and Jesus the 
Christ, the kindliest and most glori- 
fied beings in the universe? Yes, 
we say. Then we must set daily, 
monthly, and yearly goals that will 
lead to such a joyous eternal con- 
dition. The care of our bodies, the 
development of our talents, the 
acquiring of skills to work, and 
the knowledge necessary to enjoy 
life are some of these goals. 



The determination by young 
men to magnify their callings in 
the priesthood and the resolution 
by young women to prepare for 
happy wifehood and motherhood 
are goals that encompass all other 
goals for young people of the 
Church. They will give meaning 
and lasting satisfaction to every 
worthwhile and righteous endeavor 
in life. 

Goals are most effective when 
they are made by the individual 
for himself or herself. We should 
run against ourselves, not against 
others. Each of us needs to set 
his own goals, because we all have 
different strengths and weak- 
nesses. Our goals must employ 
our strengths to the fullest in over- 
coming our weaknesses and de- 
veloping our greatest potential. 
Some people go to liberal arts col- 
leges when they should be in tech- 
nical college. Some desire to be 
teachers when they should be in 
business. 

That leads us to a second con- 
sideration in setting goals. That 
is, how do we do it? As indicated, 
we set our eternal goals first. Then 
we set down the intermediate goals 
to reach these eternal goals, such 
as the goals we must reach to 
finish our schooling, prepare for a 
mission, seek a certain kind of 
marriage partner, and be worthy 
of a temple marriage. These teen- 



age goals should then be broken 
down into yearly goals, personal 
goals, the ones we need to set to 
get to the end of a most important 
decade of our lives. 

All young people in the Church 
should read the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants, and especially Section 132. 
In this section is found the founda- 
tion on which all goals, if they are 
to fulfill their purpose, must rest. 
The Lord points out that our main 
goal should be to live worthy lives 
so we can receive the new and 
everlasting covenant of marriage. 
Young people who prepare them- 
selves for eternal marriage have 
two promises: they can be with a 
certain person for time and eter- 
nity as husband or wife, and they 
can continue an eternal family 
kingdom. 

No other people in all the world 
have such a glorious promise. The 
Lord has said: "This promise is 
yours also, because ye are of Abra- 
ham, and the promise was made 
unto Abraham; and by this law is 
the continuation of the works of 
my Father " (D&C 132:31.) 

Only by setting proper goals and 
refusing to deviate from them 
under any circumstances can we 
return to the presence of our Eter- 
nal Father and Savior and be 
guaranteed the blessings of eternal 
lives and exaltation, which bless- 
ings constitute joy forever. O 



Era, March 1970 79 



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WHO 

Should Be 
Educated for 

WHAT ? 



By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

Commissioner and Executive Officer, Utah System of Higher Education 



• The means for recruiting and 
maximizing educational opportuni- 
ties for talent — as talent is now 
known — should be maintained and 
improved with the best selective 
means at our disposal. However, 
our theology assumes that every- 
one should be educated to the opti- 
mum of their capacity. The word 
"educate" is here meant broadly, 
to include all the means available 
in the world's cultures, formal or 
informal. 

Primary interest attaches to the 
question of formal education be- 
yond the American secondary 
school. Should everyone go to 
school, including colleges and uni- 
versities, after high school? 

The following general thoughts 
are offered without reference to 



financial considerations. Short- 
run economic considerations could 
lead to say that only those "highly 
qualified" should go on. But in 
the long rUn this could prove harm- 
ful (to economic growth, for exam- 
ple, as well as to individuals). 

1. I am convinced that oppor- 
tunity for education beyond the 
high school should be available to 
all who desire it. Note the absence 
of any modifying phrase, "and can 
profit by it." The assumption is 
that all who desire it can profit 
to some extent. The justifications 
are personal satisfaction, self- 
realization, and social utility. 

2. The means for educating 
beyond the high school should 
be many and various. Technical 
colleges, vocational training insti- 



tutes, commercial colleges, certifi- 
cate programs, junior colleges, and 
university work all have their 
place. 

3. "All the means" should in- 
clude what has come to be called 
liberal, general education, "the 
cloud that makes the rain." 

4. The element that has aroused 
the ambition of the American par- 
ent to seek the advantages of 
Princeton or MIT for his son, 
rather than the Wichita Barber 
College, has been the assumed 
high quality and quantity of liberal, 
scientific, general education avail- 
able at the former. Thus, there 
has been a tendency for all post- 
high school institutions, in one 
way or another, to aspire toward 
being another "Harvard." This 
feeling was born of American de- 
mocracy and its passion for equal- 
ity of opportunity, the chance for 
every man or woman to prove him- 
self or herself. 

5. It is contradictory for those 
who keep the inner sanctum of 
education beyond the high school, 
who have the inner custody of the 
liberal arts and sciences, to deny 
access to them on conditions of 
"ability." There is no limited 
supply of the liberal arts and sci- 
ences — only of facilities and 
teachers, especially a type of 
teacher of which there are all too 
few. The American people want 
"college educations" for their 
children because, as shrewd Yan- 
kees, they know that a "college 
education" works. It has worked 
the magic of social, economic, and 
political advantage, for individuals 
and for societies. Like men in the 
desert, the American people know 
the importance of educational 
"water," especially as dispensed 
through the institution they have 
come to know as the college. To 
deny opportunities to win access 
to this influence is somewhat like 
denying penicillin to pneumonia 
patients with IQ's below 105, or 



80 



who have high school grades of 
less than C. 

It is a political fact that, spurred 
by technical advance and complex 
economic pressures, the American 
people have demanded opportunity 
for at least some experience be- 
yond high school. It may be only 
broad social experience, the label, 
"yes, I went to college for a couple 
of quarters," that the parents and 
customers want — rather than love 
of learning. Yet, learning is at the 
bottom of it, and the yearning re- 
flects the love of learning. 

6. The challenge in the ques- 
tion, "Who should be educated for 
what?" lies in the especial chal- 
lenge to the liberal arts faculties 
of public tax-supported institutions 
and to the many others who are 
blind to the significant opportuni- 
ties of technical, less "liberal" 
training. 

A college is a means to an end. 
The end is enlargement of indi- 
vidual capacity and social well 
being. It is easy for a college to 
reach that end when it has 6,000 
applicants and selects the top 200 
for its freshman class. Such in- 
stitutions have little challenge that 
is new. They can go on teaching 
English and mathematics and 
chemistry and politics as these 
subjects have evolved through the 
centuries. Such institutions are 
the "conservatives" of education. 
They exist to conserve, maintain, 
and elevate high standards of ex- 
cellence in performance and in 
scholastic achievement. The newer 
challenge, the unfinished job, is 
to determine to what extent the 
aspiring high school graduate with 
a C average or less, but with de- 
sire and family-social pressure, 
can receive similar benefits. In- 
asmuch as half or two-thirds of 
mankind have been assigned to 
academic purgatory by interpreters 
of Mr. Binet and Mr. Terman and 
their sojourners, is it not challeng- 
ing for some to help create the new 



Era, March 1970 81 



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kinds of facilities, the attitudes, 
and the teachers who will attempt 
to meet the challenge? 

7. The IQ, SI, English place- 
ment test results, and all the rest 
should not be looked upon as 
academic iron curtains, or lines 
to be held by the Greeks against 
the onslaught of the "barbarian" 
hordes. Rather, they should be 
viewed as challenging educational 
frontiers. 

Although experienced slightly 
after 1918, the weight of the Amer- 
ican demand for post-high school 
education hit this country — and 
the world — after 1945. We have 
been struggling with this new 
dimension now for 25 years. 
There have been heavy new invest- 
ments in psychological tests, 
measurements, counseling facili- 
ties, technical colleges, and trade 
institutes. The latter have met the 
weight of this problem with much 
sympathy and a large measure of 
social insight. 

Before the "IQ" concept was 
conceived, a Philadelphia Working 
Men's Committee, in the year 
1830, expressed views that today 
constitute part of the challenge: 

"It is true that the state is not 
without its colleges and universi- 
ties, several of which have been 
fostered with liberal supplies from 
the public purse. Let it be ob- 
served, however, that the funds so 
applied have been appropriated ex- 
clusively for the wealthy, who are 
thereby enabled to procure a lib- 
eral education for their children 
upon lower terms than it could 
otherwise be afforded to them. 
Funds thus expended may serve 
to engender an aristocracy of tal- 
ent and place knowledge, the chief 
element of power, in the hands of 
the privileged few but can never 
serve the common prosperity of a 
nation nor confer intellectual as 
well as political equality on a 
people. 

"The original element of despo- 



82 Era, March 1970 



tism is a monopoly of talent, which 
consigns the multitude to com- 
parative ignorance and secures the 
balance of knowledge on the side 
of the rich and the rulers. If then 
the healthy existence of a free 
government be, as the committee 
believe, rooted in the will of the 
American people, it follows as a 
necessary consequence, of a gov- 
ernment based upon that will, that 
this monopoly should be broken 
up and that the means of equal 
knowledge (the only security for 
equal liberty) should be rendered, 
by legal provision, the common 
property of all classes." 1 

In the early decades of Harvard 
and Yale, students were "placed" 
socially, and ranked according to 
the father's position. In the early 
ordinances of Harvard under Presi- 
dent Dunster (1640-1654) appears 
the regulation: "Every student 
shall be called by his sirname [sic] 
except he be the son of a noble- 
man, or a knight's eldest son." 
Thus pedigree determined place, 
later influenced by wealth, then 
scholarship, with "degradation" 
(i.e., the lowering of a student's 
name on the class list) as the pun- 
ishment next highest to expulsion. - 
The ranking of men and women in 
American society by alumni ties 
and psychological testing may be 
more scientific than "degrada- 
tion." But to deny benefits of an 
educational opportunity beyond 
the high school, for as many as 
aspire to it, could mark a danger- 
ous shift of the power structure. 
That shift could be to ally techni- 
cal abilities against the Yale men, 
as at Michigan State, those with 
IQ's below 110-15 against those 
above. The nature of such a power 
struggle could be far more preju- 
dicial and disastrous than a strug- 



i Reprinted in The People Shall Judge 
(Chicago, 1947), Vol. I, p. 588. 

2See Caroline E. Vose, " 'Placing' Students 
in Colonial Days," reprinted from the North 
American Review in Loomis, Freshman Read- 
ings (1927). 



gle between economic classes, 
races, or ideological groups. 

Aristotle's determinism, no less 
than Calvin's, namely, that some 
men are destined to be rulers and 
some destined to be slaves, some 
determined for grace, others for 
perdition, has never been popular 
in the United States. Such "Cal- 
vinism" in the politics of education 
— namely, that either by God or by 
nature only one-third of mankind 
is destined and endowed with suf- 
ficient talent to profit by college 
training — was overthrown with 
Jackson and later by the Supreme 
Court of the United States in the 
race segregation cases. 

The old colleges will continue to 
flourish. Those with "sufficient 
talent" will continue to enter them. 
Democratic idealism and social 
processes will continue to be 
greatly benefitted, with leadership, 
ideas, and artifacts from such in- 
stitutions. 

But in new institutions and in 
state-supported higher education, 
the proved advantages of the an- 
cient college are now being ex- 
tended to as many as seek. 

There is also the scientific pos- 
sibility that the abilities "guessed 
at" (Walter Lippmann said) by 
Benet in Paris, Terman in Cali- 
fornia, and many, many others 
since, are not the sole values or 
the abilities required in all times 
and places. All of us are de- 
pendent in these times, more than 
we realize, on the faculties and 
graduates of the technical schools 
and colleges. The pilot can't fly, 
nor the physician or lawyer, with- 
out the prior work of the airplane 
mechanic. He deserves our appre- 
ciation and respect, together with 
the lawyer and physicia'n. More 
young men and women will be wise 
if they seek for educational op- 
portunities in the technical fields. 
Be assured that their general edu- 
cation will not be forgotten nor 
short-changed. O 



83 



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A New Look at the Pearl of Great PHce 



Part 10 



:: "ilfif;;; 



By Dr. Hugh Nibley 



• Types and Shadows: While it is the 
unique and different in human experi- 
ence that most engages the modern 
fancy, the Egyptian, as we have seen, 
was intrigued by the repeated and char- 
acteristic events of life. The most 
important of these events were ritual- 
ized, just as we ritualize the inaugura- 
tion of a President or the Rose Bowl 
game, repeating the same plot year 
after year with different actors. Hence, 
if Abraham and Sarah went through 
the same routine with King Abimelech 
as with Pharaoh, it is not because 
either or both stories are fabrications, 
as scholars have so readily assumed, 
but because both kings were observing 
an accepted pattern of behavior in 
dealing with eminent strangers. Like- 
wise, if Abraham was put on an altar- 
bed like dozens of others, it was because 
such treatment of important guests 
had become standard procedure for 
combating the drought prevailing in 
the world at that time. 

Repeating patterns of history sug- 
gest ritual as a means of dramatizing 
and controlling events, but they exist 
in their own right — they are not in- 



84 Era, March 1970 



vented by men. In the exodus of the 
Saints from Nauvoo, thousands of 
people suddenly found themselves mov- 
ing west in the dead of winter amid 
scenes of some confusion. But with- 
in three days the entire host was 
organized into 12 main groups — one 
under each of the apostles — and com- 
panies of 50 and 100. Instantly and 
quite unintentionally the order of 
Israel in the wilderness and the Sons 
of Light in the Judean desert was faith- 
fully duplicated. A student of history 
3,000 years from now might well re- 
ject the whole account as mythical, 
since it so obviously reduplicated an 
established pattern. 

To one who is aware of the inter- 
play of pattern and accident in history, 
the stories of the sacrifice of Isaac and 
of Sarah are perfect companion pieces 
to the drama of Abraham on the altar. 
Take first the case of Isaac, who is just 
another Abraham: a well-known tradi- 
tion has it that he was in the exact 
image of his father, 1 so exact, in fact, 
that until Abraham's hair turned white, 
there was absolutely no way of dis- 
tinguishing between the two men in 



spite of their difference of age. 2 "Abra- 
ham and Isaac are bound to each 
other with extraordinary intimacy," 
writes a recent commentator; ". . . the 
traditions regarding the one are not 
to be distinguished from those con- 
cerning the other," e.g., both men leave 
home to wander, both go to Egypt, both 
are promised endless posterity and cer- 
tain lands as an inheritance. 3 What 
has been overlooked is the truly re- 
markable resemblance between Isaac on 
the altar and Abraham on the altar. 

First, in both stories there is much 
made of the preparatory gathering of 
wood for a "holocaust" that never takes 
place. Abraham is commanded, "Take 
now thy son . . . and offer him . . . for 
a burnt offering." (Gen. 22:2. Italics 
added.) "Behold, I offer thee now as a 
holocaust," he cries in the Pseudo- 
Philo. 4 Accordingly, he "bound Isaac 
his son, and laid him upon the altar on 
the wood," 5 sometimes described as a 
veritable tower, just like the structure 
that "Nimrod" had built for Abraham. 
And while the Midrash has Isaac carry- 
ing the wood of the sacrifice "as one 
carries a cross on his shoulder," 7 so 
Abraham before him "took the wood 
for the burnt offering and carried it, 
just as a man carries his cross on his 
shoulder." 8 According to one tradition, 



the sacrifice was actually completed 
and Isaac turned to ashes. 9 On the 
other hand, when the princes an- 
nounced their intention of putting 
Abraham in a fiery furnace, he is said 
to have submitted willingly: "If there 
is any sin of mine so that I be burned, 
the will of God be done." 10 Indeed, 
the Hasidic version has it that "Abra- 
ham our father offered up his life for 
the sanctification of the Name of God 
and threw himself into the fiery fur- 
nace. . . .*'" The famous play on the 
words "Ur of the Chaldees" and "Fire 
[ur] of the Chaldees" was probably 
suggested by these traditions — not the 
other way around, since Isaac escapes 
from the flames in the same way that 
Abraham does; i.e., the original motif 
requires a fire, not a city called Ur. 

For all the emphasis on sacrificial 
fire, it is the knife that is the instru- 
ment of execution in the attempted 
offerings of Abraham and Isaac: "And 
Abraham stretched forth his hand, and 
took the knife to slay his son." (Gen. 
22:10.) It was always the custom to 
slaughter (zabakh) the victim and then 
burn the remains to ashes; the blood 
must be shed and the offering never 
struggles in the flames. Many stories 
tell how the knife was miraculously 
turned aside as it touched the neck of 



the victim, whether Abraham or Isaac: 
suddenly the throat is protected by a 
collar of copper, as it turns to marble, 
or the knife becomes soft lead. 12 But 
in the usual account it is dashed from 
the hand of the officiant by an angel 
who is visible to the victim on the 
altar but not to the priest. 13 If the 
wood under Abraham and Isaac was 
never ignited, neither did the knife 
ever cut. 

Being bound on the altar, Abraham, 
as the Book of Abraham and the 
legends report, prayed fervently for de- 
liverance. Exactly such a prayer was 
offered as Isaac lay on the altar, but 
though in this case it was Isaac who 
was in mortal peril, it was again Abra- 
ham who uttered the prayer for de- 
liverance: "May He who answered 
Abraham on Mt. Moriah, answer you, 
and may He listen to the voice of your 
cry this day." 14 And just as the angels 
appealed to God when they saw Abra- 
ham on the altar, so later when they 
saw Isaac in the same situation they 
cried out in alarm: "What will happen 
to the covenant with Abraham to 
'Establish my covenant with Isaac,' for 
the slaughtering knife is set upon his 
throat. The tears of the angels fell 
upon the knife, so that it could not 
cut Isaac's throat. . . ." 15 It is still 



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Abraham for whom the angels are 
concerned, even though it is the life of 
Isaac that is in intimate danger. Every- 
thing seems to hark back to the original 
sacrifice — that of Abraham. Thus, at 
the moment that Isaac was freed from 
the altar, "God renewed his promises 
to Abraham,"™ the very promises that 
had been given at the moment of 
Abraham's own deliverance (Abr. 1:16, 
19); while he in turn prayed to God 
"that when the children of Isaac come 
to a time of distress, thou mayest re- 
member on their behalf the binding 
of Isaac their father, and loose and 
forgive their sins and deliver them 
from all distress." 17 Thus Abraham's 
prayer for deliverance is handed down 
to all his progeny. 

In both sacrifice stories an angel 
comes to the rescue in immediate re- 
sponse to the prayer, while at the same 
time the voice of God is heard from 
heaven. This goes back to Genesis 
22:1 If, 15-18, where "the angel of the 
Lord" conveys to Abraham the words 
of God speaking in the first person: 
"And the angel of the Lord . . . said, 
By myself have I sworn, saith the 
Lord. . . ." As the Rabbis explained it, 
"God makes a sign to the Metatron, 
who in turn calls out to Abra- 
ham. . ." 1S or "the Almighty hastened 
to send his voice from above, saying: 
Do not slay thy son." 10 That this 
complication is ancient and not in- 
vented by the doctors, whom it puzzled, 
is indicated in the "lion-couch" situa- 
tion in which, as we have seen, the 
appearance of the heavenly messenger 
is accompanied by the voice of the 
Lord of all, which is heard descending 
from above. It is Abraham who es- 
tablishes the standard situation: how 
many times in his career did he find 
himself in mortal danger only to pray 
and be delivered by an angel? An 
angel came to rescue the infant in the 
cave when his mother had given him 
up for dead; the same angel came to 
rescue the child Abraham from the 
soldiers, saying, "Do not fear, for the 
Mighty One will deliver thee from the 
hand of thine enemies!" 20 The same 
angel delivered him first from starva- 
tion in prison and then from death in 
the flames. So it is not surprising 
that the angel who comes to rescue 
Isaac puts a stop to the proceedings 
by calling out "Abraham, Abraham" 
(Gen. 22:1 If), while Isaac remains 
passive throughout. 21 

One of the strangest turns of the 
Abraham story was surely Abraham's 
refusal to be helped by the angel, with 
its striking Egyptian parallel. 22 Surpris- 
ingly enough, the same motif occurs 
in the sacrifice of Isaac. For according 
to the Midrash, God ordered Michael, 
"Delay not, hasten to Abraham and 



86 Era, March 1970 



tell him not to do the deed!" And 
Michael obeyed: "Abraham! Abraham! 
What art thou doing?" To this the 
Patriarch replied, "Who tells me to 
stop?" "A messenger sent from the 
Lord!" says Michael. But Abraham an- 
swers, "The Almighty Himself com- 
manded me to offer my son to Him 
— only He can countermand the order; 
I will not hearken to any messenger!" 
So God must personally intervene to 
save Isaac. 23 Such a very peculiar twist 
to the story — the refusal of angelic as- 
sistance in the moment of supreme 
danger — is introduced by way of ex- 
plaining that it is God and not the 
angel who delivers; so in the Book of 
Abraham: ". . . and the angel of his 
presence stood by me, and immediately 
unloosed my bands; and his voice was 
unto me: Abraham, Abraham, behold, 
my name is Jehovah, and I have heard 
thee, and have come down to deliver 
thee. . . ." (Abr. 1:15-16.) Everything 
indicates that this is the old authentic 
version. 

In both sacrifices the role of Satan 
is the same, as he does his best at 
every step to frustrate the whole busi- 
ness. As the man in black silk pleaded 
with Abraham on the altar to be 
sensible, yield to the king, and so save 
his own life, even so he addresses him 
at the second sacrifice: "Are you 
crazy — killing your own son!" To 
which Abraham replied, "For that pur- 
pose he was born." Satan then 
addressed Isaac: "Are you going to 
allow this?" And the young man an- 
answered, "I know what is going on, 
and I submit to it." 24 First Satan had 
done everything in his power to block 
their progress on the road to the moun- 
tain, 25 and then as a venerable and 
kindly old man he had walked along 
with them, piously and reasonably 
pointing out that a just God would 
not demand the sacrifice of a son. 26 
It was even Satan, according to some, 
who dashed the knife from Abraham's 
hand in- the last moment. 27 In both 
stories it is Satan who suggests the 
sacrifice in the first place, 28 and then 
does everything in his power to keep 
it from being carried out. Why is that? 
The explanation is given both times: 
Mastema suggests the supreme sacrifice 
in order to discredit Abraham with the 
angels, for he is sure that the prophet 
will back out in the end. As soon as 
it becomes perfectly clear, therefore, 
that Abraham is not backing out, Satan 
becomes alarmed, and to keep from 
losing his bet he wants to call the 
whole thing off. 

In a recent and important study, 
A. R. Rosenberg has pointed out that 
the sacrifice of Isaac has its background 
in the Canaanitish rite of the substitute 
king, which rite was "celebrated in 



both Persia and Babylonia in connec- 
tion with the acronical rising of Sirius 
... [as Saturn] the god who demanded 
human sacrifices." 29 We have al- 
ready noted that the worship of Sirius 
played a conspicuous part, according 
to the Book of Abraham 1:9, in the 
rites involving the sacrifice of Abra- 
ham. In connection with the offering 
of Isaac, Rosenberg lays great empha- 
sis on a passage from the Book of 
Enoch: ". . . the Righteous One shall 
arise from sleep and walk in the paths 
of righteousness," the figure on the 
altar being the Righteous One. 30 At 
once we think of "the weary one" or 
"the sleeping one" who arises from 
the lion-couch. What confirms the 
association is the report that "as Isaac 
was about to be sacrificed, the Arelim 
began to roar in heaven." 31 For the 
Arelim are "the divine lions," 31 whose 
role in Egyptian sacrifical rites we have 
already explained. Thus, even the lion 
motif is not missing from our two sacri- 
fice stories. 

The close resemblance between the 
sacrifices of Abraham and Isaac, far 
from impugning the authenticity of 
either story, may well be viewed as 
a confirmation of both. J. Finkel points 
out that there are many close parallels 
to the story of the sacrifice of Isaac in 
ancient literature, and that these are 
"overwhelmingly ritualistic," 32 that is, 
they belong to a category of events 
that follow a set pattern and yet really 
do happen. "On the mountain of the 
Temple Abraham offered Isaac his 
son," according to a Targum, "and on 
this mountain — of the Temple — the 
glory of the Shekhinah of the Lord was 
revealed to him." 33 What happened 
there was the type and shadow of the 
temple ordinances to come, which were 
in turn the type and shadow of a 
greater sacrifice. The one sacrifice 
prefigures the other, being, in the 
words of St. Ambrose, "less perfect, 
but still of the same order." 34 Isaac is 
a type: "Any man," says the Midrash. 
"who acknowledges that there are two 
worlds, is an Isaac," and further ex- 
plains, "Not Isaac but in Isaac — that 
is, a portion of the seed of Isaac, not 
all of it. . . ." 35 In exactly the same 
sense Abraham too is a type: ". . . and 
in thee (that is, in thy Priesthood) 
and in thy seed . . . shall all the fami- 
lies of the earth be blessed." (Abr. 
2:11. Italics added.) Far from being 
disturbed by resemblances, we should 
find them most reassuring. Is it sur- 
prising that the sacrifice of Isaac looked 
both forward and back, as "Isaac 
thought of himself as the type of offer- 
ings to come, while Abraham thought 
of himself as atoning for the guilt of 
Adam," or that "as Isaac was being 
bound on the altar, the spirit of Adam, 



87 




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the first man, was being bound with 
him"? 36 It was natural for Christians 
to view the sacrifice of Isaac as a type 
of the Crucifixion, yet it is the Jewish 
sources that comment most impres- 
sively on the sacrifice of the Son. When 
at the creation of the world the angels 
asked, "What is man that Thou 
shouldest remember him?" God re- 
plied: "You shall see the father slay 
his son, and the son consenting to be 
slain, to sanctify my name." 37 When 
Abraham performed "the various sacri- 
fices that should once be brought in 
the Temple, to atone for the sins of 
Israel," he was shown the whole his- 
tory of the world, and the coming of 
the Messiah and the resurrection, and 
how in the end his own father would 
be saved by ministrations on behalf 
of the dead. 3S So, as Joseph Smith has 
told us, Abraham was perfectly aware 
of the entire plan of salvation and of 
his place in it. 39 

The importance of the sacrifice of 
Isaac as a type of atonement is brought 
out in many references to the cosmic 
significance of the ram which took 
Isaac's place. From its horn was made 
the shofar which was to be blown on 
New Year's Day forever after to re- 
mind the people "of the offering of 
Isaac as an atonement for Israel." 40 
According to Rabbi Eliezer, its left horn 
announces the redemption of Israel at 
the New Year, while its right horn will 
be the trumpet that announces the 
millennium. 41 Every part of the ram 
figures in the history of Israel's salva- 
tion: Its ashes form the foundation of 
the inner altar, its sinews make the ten 
strings of David's harp, its skin is 
Elijah's girdle, one of its horns is 
blown on Sinai and the other for the 
final gathering of all Israel. 42 Like the 
altar of Isaac, which is supposed to 
have been the same one on which 
Adam, Cain, Abel, and Noah sacrificed 
before and on which David and Solo- 
mon were to make offering thereafter, 43 
the ram is one of those symbols that 
binds all times, places, and dispensa- 
tions together in a single unified plan. 

But if Isaac is a type of the Messiah 
as "the Suffering Servant," Abraham 
is no less so. Even while he labors 
to minimize any spiritual resemblance 
between Christ and Abraham, M. Sog- 
gin reluctantly confesses that the his- 
torical and literary parallels between 
the two are most conspicuous. 44 R. 
Graves has called attention to the 
various signs and characteristics that 
show that Abraham himself was a 
type of the sacred victim as a substi- 
tute offering for a king, just as Isaac 
was. 45 An important point of resem- 
blance between the two sacrifices is 
the complete freedom of will with 
which the victim submits. "I know 



88 



what is going on," says Isaac on the 
altar, "and I submit to it!" 46 In time 
the main significance of the Akedah, 
the binding of Isaac, was on the free- 
will offering of the victim for the 
atonement of Israel; we are even told 
that Isaac at the age of 37 actually 
"asked to be bound on the Day of 
Atonement and Abraham functioned as 
the High Priest at the altar." 47 In the 
same way, a great deal is made of 
Abraham's willingness: "I was with 
thee," says God in the Midrash, "when 
thou didst willingly offer for my 
name's sake to enter the fiery fur- 
nace." 43 When Abraham refused to 
escape though Prince Jectan opened the 
way for him, the Prince told him, 
"Your blood will be upon your own 
head," to which the hero cheerfully 
agreed. 49 According to one tradition, 
Abraham had the choice of handing 
over to the king some sort of token or 
seal (a brick with his name on it?) or 
giving up his life, and he deliberately 
chose the latter. 50 The Hasidic teach- 
ing was that "Abraham our father 
offered up his life . . . and threw him- 
self into the fiery furnace." 51 There 
need be no sense of competition be- 
tween the merits of father and son 
here — others too have made the su- 
preme sacrifice — but the significance of 
Abraham's test on the altar, as R. J. 
Loewe points out, "is that Abraham 
in Nimrod's furnace is the first of those 
who willingly gave up his life for the 
sanctification of the divine Name." 52 
This assigns a very important place in 
the history of the atonement to the 
drama depicted in the Book of Abra- 
ham and strongly attests its authen- 
ticity. 

The Resurrection Motif: In the 
Egyptian versions of the "lion-couch" 
drama, the resurrection motif was 
paramount. The sacrifices of Isaac and 
Abraham, apart from typifying the 
atonement, were also foreshadowings 
of the resurrection. There are per- 
sistent traditions in each case that the 
victim actually was put to death, only 
to be resurrected on the spot. We have 
seen in the Abraham stories how, when 
no knife could cut his throat, he was 
catapulted into the fire, which there- 
upon was instantly transformed into a 
blooming bower of delicious flowers 
and fruits amid which Abraham sat 
enjoying himself in angelic company. 53 
This at once calls to mind the image 
found in numerous (and very early) 
Oriental seals and murals of the re- 
vived or resurrected king sitting be- 
neath an arbor amid the delights of the 
feast at the New Year. 54 St. Jerome cites 
a Jewish belief that Abraham's rescue 
from the altar was the equivalent of a 
rebirth or resurrection. 55 It is Abraham 
who leads out in the resurrection: 



"After these things," says the Testa- 
ment of Judah (25:1), "shall Abraham 
and Isaac and Jacob arise unto life, and 
I (Judah) and my brethren shall be 
chiefs of the tribes of Israel." 

The stories of the resurrection of 
Isaac are quite explicit. As Rabbi 
Eliezer puts it, "When the blade 
touched his neck, the soul of Isaac fled 
and departed . . . but at the words 
'lay not thy hand . . .' his soul returned 
to his body and he stood upon his feet 
and knew that in this manner the 
dead in the future would be quickened. 
And he said: Blessed art thou, O Lord, 
who quicken eth the dead." 56 Another 
tradition is that "the tears of the angels 
fell upon the knife, so that it could not 
cut Isaac's throat, but for terror his 
soul escaped from him" — he died on 
the altar. 57 Another has it that as the 
knife touched his throat "his life's 
spirit departed — his body became like 
ashes," i.e., he actually became a burnt 
offering; 58 or, as G. Vermes puts it, 
"though he did not die, scripture 
credits Isaac with having died and his 
ashes having lain upon the altar." 59 
But he only dies in order to prefigure 
the resurrection, for immediately God 
sent the dew of life "and Isaac received 
his spirit again, while the angels joined 
in a chorus of praise: Praised be the 
Eternal, thou who hast given life to 
the dead!" 60 In another account God 
orders Michael to rush to the rescue: 
"Why standest thou here? Let him not 
be slaughtered! Without delay Michael, 
anguish in his voice, cried out: 'Abra- 
ham! Abraham! Lay not thy hand upon 
the lad. ... At once Abraham left off 
from Isaac, who returned to life, re- 
vived by the heavenly voice." 61 Isaac 
is a symbol of revival and renewal — 
"Is any thing too hard for the Lord?" 
(Gen. 18:14.) At his birth, we are 
told, both Abraham and Sarah re- 
gained their youth. 62 And "just as God 
gave a child to Abraham and Sarah 
when they had lost all hope, so he can 
restore Jerusalem." 63 When R. Graves 
surmises that "Abraham according to 
the custom would renew his youth by 
the sacrifice of his first-born son," he is 
referring to a custom which Abraham 
fervidly denounced but which was 
nonetheless observed in his own family, 
according to the Book of Abraham 
(1:30), which reports that his own 
father "had determined against me, to 
take away my life." The famous Strass- 
burg Bestiary begins with a vivid 
scene of the sacrifice of Isaac followed 
by the drama of the sacrificial death 
and resurrection of the fabulous 
Phoenix-bird, the Egyptian and early 
Christian symbol of the resurrection. 6 * 

Why the insistence on the death and 
resurrection of Israel? Because a perfect 
sacrifice must be a complete sacrifice, 



and the rabbinical tradition, especially 
when it was directed against the claims 
of the Christians, insisted that the 
sacrifice of Isaac was the perfect sacri- 
fice, thus obviating the need for the 
atoning death of Christ. "Though the 
idea of the death and resurrection of 
Isaac was generally rejected by rab- 
binic Judaism," writes R. A. Rosen- 
berg, still the proposition was accepted 
"that Isaac was 'the perfect sacrifice,' 
the atonement offering that brings for- 
giveness of sins through the ages." 65 
Accordingly, the blood of the Paschal 
lamb is considered to be the blood of 
Isaac, 03 and according to some Jewish 
sectaries the real purpose of the Pass- 
over is to celebrate the offering of Isaac 
rather than the deliverance from 
Egypt. 66 It wasn't only the sectaries, 
however: "In Rabbinical writings all 
sacrifice is a memorial of Isaac's self- 
oblation." 67 

The Uncompleted Sacrifice: But the 
stories of Isaac's "resurrection" are 
scattered, conflicting, and poorly at- 
tested, however persistent, and this 
leads to serious difficulty: "The main 
problem was, of course," writes Vermes, 
"the obvious fact that Isaac did not 
actually die on the altar." 68 The whole 
biblical account, in fact, focuses on 
the dramatic arrest of the action at its 
climax — "Lay not thine hand upon the 
lad." (Gen. 22:12. Italics added.) It 
has often been claimed, in fact, that 
the story of Isaac's sacrifice really re- 
cords the abolition of human sacrifice, 
when Abraham decides it will not be 
necessary. 69 But the validity of the 
sacrifice, according to the Rabbis, lay in 
Isaac's complete willingness to be of- 
fered, which has been called "the most 
profound and anomalous religious 
concept ever known to the human 
mind," being nothing less than "the 
cornerstone of the whole Jewish the- 
ology of the love of God." 70 Abraham 
may have known that Isaac was in no 
real danger when he said, w 7 ith per 
feet confidence, "My son, God will 
provide himself a lamb for a burni 
offering" (Gen. 22:8), and when with- 
out equivocation he told the two young 
men who escorted them to the moun- 
tain: "... I and the lad will go yonder 
and worship, and come again to you" 
(Gen. 22:5); Isaac did not know it — it 
was he who was being tested. But 
Abraham had already been tested in 
the same way; if "Isaac . . . offeree' 
himself at the Binding," so before his 
day the youthful "Abraham . . . threw 
himself into the fiery furnace. ... If 
we follow in their footsteps they will 
stand and intercede for us on the holy 
and awesome day." 71 Isaac was being 
tested even as other saints are tested, 
since, as Rabbi Eliezer puts it, "the 
testing of the righteous here below . . . 



Era, March 1970 89 








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is essential to the plan of the uni- 
verse." 72 The Midrash, in fact, "strong- 
ly emphasized the parallelism between 
the sacrifice of Isaac and the willing 
martyrdom of other heroes and hero- 
ines," including many who suffered 
terribly painful deaths. 73 Isaac, in 
short, belongs to the honorable cate- 
gory of those who were willing to be 
"Partakers of Christ's sufferings," as 
all the saints and martyrs have been. 
(1 Pet. 4:13, etc.) 

The second problem raised by the 
claim that Isaac's sacrifice was the 
ultimate atonement is that the shed- 
ding of blood did not cease with it: "If 
Isaac's sacrifice atones," asks Vermes, 
"why was further daily sacrifice in the 
Temple necessary?" 74 Circumcision no 
less than the Akedah "remains a never- 
ceasing atonement for Israel, being 
performed by Abraham himself and 
'on the Date of Atonement,' and upon 
the spot on which the altar was later 
to be erected in the Temple," 75 but for 
all that, no one claims that all the Law 
is fulfilled in it. "Students of Christian 
origins have come increasingly to 
realize," writes Rosenberg, a Jew, ". . . 
that the sacrifice of Isaac was to be 
reenacted by the 'new Isaac,' who, like 
the old, was a 'son of God.' " 7C > The 
early Christian teaching was that, as 
he was about to sacrifice his son on 
the mountain, Abraham "saw Christ's 
day and yearned for it. There he saw 
the Redemption of Adam and rejoiced, 
and it was revealed to him, that the 
Messiah would suffer in the place of 
Adam." 77 But the old Isaac, called in 
the Targum "the Lamb of Abraham," 78 
neither suffered sacrificial death nor 
put an end to the shedding of blood. 
His act was an earnest of things to 
come, and that puts it on the same 
level as the sacrifice of Abraham. 

This explains, we believe, the ab- 
sence of the story of Abraham on the 
altar from the pages of the Old Testa- 
ment. G. Vermes points out that 
whereas in the biblical version of the 
sacrifice of Abraham "the principal 
actors were Abraham and God," other 
versions, even in very early times, 
"somewhat surprisingly shift the 
emphasis and focus their interest on 
the person of Isaac." 70 Whatever the 
reason for this shift, it was a very 
emphatic one: ". . . the Binding of 
Isaac was thought to have played a 
unique role in the whole economy of 
the salvation of Israel, and to have a 
permanent redemptive effect on behalf 
of its people." 80 It completely sup- 
planted the earlier episode of the sac- 
rifice of Abraham on the ancient 
principle that "the later repetition of 
an event . . . causes the earlier occur- 
rence to be forgotten." 81 The principle 
is nowhere better illustrated than in 



90 Era, March 1970 



the story of Abraham himself: the 
names Abram and Sarai are unknown 
to most Christians, because of the 
explicit command, "Do not call Sarah 
Sarai" anymore; "do not call Abraham 
Abram" — those were once their names, 
but no more! 81 When Israel finally re- 
turns to God and goes to Abraham for 
instruction, we are told, instead of 
teaching them himself, he will refer 
them to Isaac, who will in turn pass 
them on to Jacob and so on down to 
Moses — it is from the latest prophet of 
the latest dispensation that the people 
receive instruction. 82 On this principle, 
the only words of the Father in the 
New Testament are those which in- 
troduce his Son and turn all the offices 
of the dispensation over to him. (Matt. 
3:17, 17:5, etc.) 

It was necessary to overshadow and 
even supplant the story of Abraham's 
sacrifice by that of Isaac if Isaac were 
to have any stature at all with pos- 
terity. Scholars long declared both 
Isaac and Jacob, imitating Abraham 
in everything, to be mere shadow fig- 
ures, mythical creatures without any 
real personalities of their own. Jacob, 
to be sure, has some interesting if not 
altogether creditable experiences, but 
what is left for Isaac? The three stand 
before us as a trio: "Abraham instituted 
the morning prayer, Isaac the noon 
prayer, and Jacob the evening prayer," 
i.e., they all share in establishing a 
single body of rites and ordinances. 83 
One does not steal the glory of the 
other. Great emphasis is laid by the 
Rabbis on the necessary equality of 
merit and glory between Abraham and 
Isaac, 84 while each emphasizes some 
special aspect of the divine economy: 
Abraham was the Great One, Jacob 
the Little One, and Isaac who came in 
between was "the servant of Jehovah 
who was delivered from the bonds of 
his Master." 85 The special emphasis on 
Isaac is as the sacrificial victim. If his 
sacrifice was "an imperfect type," it 
was still more perfect than the earlier 
sacrifice of Abraham on a pagan altar, 
and in every way it qualified to super- 
sede it. Though it was an equal test 
for both men, "purged and idealized 
by the trial motivation," 86 the second 
sacrifice was the true type of the 
atonement. In the long and detailed 
history of Abraham the story of the 
sacrifice in Canaan could safely be 
omitted in deference to the nobler 
repetition, which, while it added no 
less to the glory of Abraham, preserves 
a sense of proportion among the 
Patriarchs. 

Abraham gets as much credit out of 
the sacrifice of Isaac as he does from his 
own adventure on the altar — he had 
already risked his own life countless 
times; how much dearer to him in his 



old age was the life of his only son 
and heir! And since the two sacrifices 
typify the same thing, nothing is lost 
to Abraham and much is gained for 
Isaac by omitting the earlier episode 
from the Bible. But that episode left 
an indelible mark in the record. The 
learned Egyptologist who in 1912 
charged Joseph Smith with reading the 
sacrifice of Isaac into Facsimile No. 1 
and the story of Abraham was appar- 
ently quite unaware that ancient Jew- 
ish writers of whom Joseph Smith knew 
nothing told the same story that he 
did about Abraham on the altar. The 
important thing for the student of the 
Book of Abraham is that the sacrifice 
of Abraham was remembered — and 
vividly recalled in nonbiblical sources 
— as a historical event. This makes 
it almost certain that it was a real 
event, for nothing is less probable 
than that the Jews would at a very 
early time invent a story which, while 
adding little or nothing to the supreme 
glory of Abraham, would do definite 
damage to Isaac's one claim to fame. 
If the binding on the altar — the 
Akedah — was to be the "unique glory 
of Isaac," it was entirely in order to 
quietly drop the earlier episode of 
Abraham that anticipates and over- 
shadows it, just as it is right and 
proper to forget that the hero was 
once called Abram. 

Back to the Lion-Couch: Recent 
studies of the sacrifice of Isaac empha- 
size as its most important aspect the 
principle of substitution, which is also 
basic in the sacrifice of Abraham. As J. 
Finkel expressed it, "evidently the 
primary aim of the story (of Isaac) 
was to give divine sanction to the 
law of substitution." 87 Isaac was not 
only saved by a. substitute, but he him- 
self was substituting for another. "A 
ram by the name of Isaac went at the 
head of Abraham's herd. Gabriel took 
him and brought him to Abraham, and 
he sacrificed him instead of his son." 88 
As he did so, Abraham said, "Since I 
brought my son to you as a sacrificial 
animal be in thine eye as if it were my 
son lying on the altar." 80 Accordingly, 
"whatsoever Abraham did by the altar, 
he exclaimed, and said, 'This is instead 
of my son, and may it be considered 
before the Lord in place of my son.' 
And God accepted the sacrifice of the 
ram, and it was accounted as though 
it had been Isaac." 90 Himself noble, 
Isaac was saved by the substitution of 
"a noble victim." 91 

But, more important, he himself was 
a substitute. "In Jewish tradition," 
writes A. R. Rosenberg, "Isaac is the 
prototype of the 'Suffering Servant,' 
bound on the altar as a sacrifice." 92 
Rosenberg has shown that the title of 
Suffering Servant was used in the An- 



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cient East to designate "the substitute 
king" — the noble victim. Accordingly, 
the "new Isaac" mentioned in Macca- 
bees 13:12 must be "a 'substitute king' 
who dies that the people might live."" 3 
The starting point in Rosenberg's in- 
vestigation is Isaiah 52:13 to 53:12. 
which "seems to constitute a portion of 
a ritual drama centering about a simi- 
lar humiliation, culminating in death, 
of a 'substitute' for the figure of the 
king of the Jews." If we examine these 
passages, we find that they fit the 
story of Abraham's sacrifice even bet- 
ter than that of Isaac. 

Thus beginning with Isaiah 52:13 we 
see the Suffering Servant raised up on 
high, reminding us of the scene from 
the Midrash (Midr. Rab. 43:5): ". . . 
they cut cedar and made a great altar 
(hernah) and placed him on it on high 
and they bowed down in mockery 
before him and said to him, 'Hear us, 
Lord!' and the like. They said to him, 
'Thou art King over us! Thou art ex- 
alted above us! Thou art a god over 
us!' But he said to them, 'The world 
does not lack its king, nor does it lack 
its God!'" (Midr. Rab. 43:5.) Here 
Abraham both rejects the office and 
denounces the rites. The Midrash also 
indicates that the rites of Isaac were 
matched by heathen practices, his 
Akedah resembling the binding of the 
princes of the heathen, since every na- 
tion possesses at its own level "a 
'prince' as its guardian angel and 
patron." (Midr. Rab. 56:5.) 

The next verse (52:14), the picture 
of the Suffering Servant with "visage 
. . . marred," recalls Abraham led out 
to sacrifice after his long suffering in 
prison while the princes and the wise 
men mock. Verse 15, telling of the 
kings who shut their mouths in amaze- 
ment, recalls the 365 kings who were 
astounded to behold Abraham's de- 
livery from the altar. In 53:1 the arm 
of the Lord is revealed, as it is unbe- 
knownst to the others in the delivery 
of Abraham. (Cf. Abr. 1:17.) Isaiah 
53:2 emphasizes the drought motif, 
which, as we have seen, is never miss- 
ing from the rites of the substitute 
king. In verses 3 to 8 the Suffering 
Servant is beaten that we may be 
healed — a substitute for all of us. In 
verse 8 he is "taken from prison and 
from judgment" to be "cut off out of 
the land of the living," exactly as 
Abraham was according to the tradi- 
tions. Verse 9 reminds us of Abraham 
in wicked Canaan, and verse 10 — "it 
pleased the Lord to bruise him . . ." — 
recalls the description of Abraham as 
a son being mercilessly beaten by a 
loving father but never complaining. 
Finally the reward: Because his soul 
was placed as an offering, he shall see 
his progeny, his days shall be length- 



92 Era, March 1970 



ened, and he shall prosper greatly 
(see verses 10-12) — all "because he 
hath poured out his soul unto 
death . . ." (verse 12). Such was the 
reward of Abraham, with the assur- 
ance also that by the knowledge gained 
he would be able to sanctify others. 
(See verse 11.) In the end the Suffer- 
ing Servant becomes the great inter- 
cessor: "he bare the sin of many, and 
made intercession for the transgressors" 
(53:12), just as Abraham does, as the 
great advocate for sinners living and 
dead. Thus Isaiah 52:13-53:12, while 
vividly recalling the suffering of 
Isaac, is an even better description of 
Abraham on the altar. 

The sacrifice of the substitute king is 
found all over the ancient world. Ac- 
cording to Rosenberg, the rite was 
"celebrated in both Persia and Baby- 
lonia in connection with the acronical 
rising of Sirius," sometimes identified 
in this connection with Saturn, "the 
god who demanded human sacrifice." 94 
The Book of Abraham has already ap- 
prised us of the importance of Sirius 
(Shagre-el) in the sacrificial rites of 
the Plain of Olishem, and it even 
labors the point that human sacrifice 
was the normal order of things in 
Canaan in Abraham's day. We have 
taken the position from the first that 
Abraham was put on the altar as a 
substitute for the king, an idea first 
suggested by the intense rivalry be- 
tween the two, as indicated both in the 
legends and in the Book of Abraham. 
Since the series in the Era began, 
Rosenberg's study of the sacrifice of 
Isaac has appeared, with the final con- 
clusion that in the earliest accounts of 
that event "both the Jewish and Chris- 
tian traditions stem ultimately from the 
ancient Canaanite cult of Jerusalem, 
in which periodically the King, or a 
substitute for the King, had to be of- 
fered for a sacrifice." 95 It was to just 
such a cult — in Canaan — that we traced 
the sacrifice of Abraham, and that is 
why we have been at such pains to 
point out the close and thorough-going 
resemblances between the two: they 
are essentially the same rite and have 
the same background. If the one re- 
flects "the ancient Canaanite cult" in 
which "a substitute for the King had to 
be offered," so does the other. Rosen- 
berg says the sacrifice of Isaac most 
certainly goes back to that cult, and the 
Book of Abraham tells us flatly that 
the sacrifice of Abraham does. Cer- 
tainly the Abraham story in its pagan 
setting is much nearer to the original 
substitute-king rite in all its details 
than is the Isaac story, which is a 
sizable step removed from it. The 
substitute sacrifice is a red thread that 
runs through the early career of the 
Prophet: The life of the infant Abra- 



ham when his brother Haran substi- 
tuted a slave child to be killed in his 
place; 96 then Haran himself died for 
Abraham in the flames; 96 and then 
Abraham was saved from the lion- 
couch when the priest was smitten in 
his stead (Abr. 1:17, 29); finally his 
life was saved by his wife Sarah, who 
was willing to face death to rescue him 
again from the lion-couch. This last 
much-misunderstood episode deserves 
closer attention. 

(To be continued) 

FOOTNOTES 

1 B. Beer, Leben Abraham's, p. 47; L. Ginz- 
berg, Legends of the Jeios, Vol. 1, p. 262; for 
Rashi's explanation, G. Abrahams, The Jewish 
Mind, p. 51, n. 1. 

2 M. J. bin Gorion, Die Sagen der Juden, I, 
325. 

3 H. Seebass, Erzvater Israels, p. 105. 

•J G. Vermes, Scripture and Tradition in Juda- 
ism (Leiden: Brill, 1961), pp. 199f for text. 
5 Ibid., p. 209. 
is Beer, op. cit., pp. 66, 182. 

7 I. Levi, in Rev. des Etudes Juives, Vol. 59 
(1912), p. 169. 

8 Bin Gorion, II, 300. 

9 Beer, p. 67. 

1 o Pseudo-Philo, VI, 11. Cf. Isaac's speeches 
in Beer, p. 65. 

11 N. N. Glatzer, Faith and Knowledge, p. 
178. 

12 Bin Gorion, II, 303. 

13 Beer, p. 67: Sometimes Abraham lets the 
knife fall, and sometimes it is not the angel 
but Satan who dashes it from his hand. Cf. bin 
Gorion, II, p. 287. 

14 Vermes, p. 195. 

15 Ginzberg, L. /., Vol. 1, p. 281. 

16 Pseudo-Philo, 32:2-4; complete Latin text 
in Vermes, pp. 199-200. 

17 Ginzberg, loc. cit.; see next note. 

18 Targums cited at length in Vermes, pp. 
149-50. 

19 Pseudo-Philo, loc. cit. 

20 Maase Abraham, in Jellineck, Beth ha- 
Midrasch I, 28. 

21 Bin Gorion, II, 287. 

22 Discussed in the Era, Vol. 72 ( August 
1969), p. 76. In all the apocryphal accounts of 
Abraham on the altar he refuses the assistance 
proffered by the angel, saying that God alone 
will deliver him. Maase Abraham, in Jellinck, 
Beth ha-Midrasch I, 34, and Midrash de 
Abraham Abinu, ibid., p. 41; Ka'b el-Ahbar, 
text in Rev. des Etudes, Vol. 70 (1920), p. 
37. 

23 Beer, p. 68. 

24 1. Levi, in Rev. des Eludes Juives, Vol. 
59, p. 169. 

25 Ginzberg, L. J., Vol. 1, pp. 276-77. 

20 Beer, p. 62, citing S. ha-Yashar, 77-79, 
and Midrash. 

2 7 Bin Gorion, II, 287. 

28 Levi, op. cit., pp. 166f. 

29 R. A. Rosenberg, in Journal of Biblical 
Literature, Vol. 84 (1965), p. 382. 

30 Ibid., p. 385, quoting the Book of Enoch 
92:3, which Rosenberg calls "the most im- 
portant text yet discovered of the Jewish 
apocalyptic literature." 

31 Ibid., p. 382. 

32 J. Finkel, in Proceedings of the American 
Academy of Jewish Research, Vol. 3 (1930), 
p. 15. 

33 Vermes, op. cit., p. 195. 

34 J. Danielou, in Biblica, Vol. 28 (1947), 
pp. 392-93. 

35 M. Braude, Midr. Ps., 105:1. 

36 Bin Gorion, II, 307-8. 

37 Vermes, p. 201; Beer, p. 68. 

38 Ginzberg, L. J., Vol. 1, pp. 235-37. 

39 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 
pp. 59-60, 181; cf. Apocalypse of Abraham, 
chapters 11 and 12. 

40 I. Levi in R.E.J. , Vol. 59, pp. 169-71; Beer, 
p. 186. 

ilPirqe R. Eliezer, Ch. 31, pp. 229f. 

42 Ginzberg, Vol. 1, p. 283. So also the 
donkey was likewise the same beast that 
would later be ridden by Balaam, Moses, and 
the Messiah; Beer, p. 61. 



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43 M. Levittes, Maimonides, VIII, p. 10. 

44 J. Soggin, in Theologische Literaturzeitung, 
89 (1964), pp. 732f. 

45 R. Graves, The White Goddess (New 
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46 D. S. Shapiro, in Tradition, Vol. 4 (1962), 
p. 218, discusses this. 

47 P. R. Eliezer, Ch. 31, p. 227. 

48 Midrash Rab. Gen., 39:8; Ps. 110:3. 

49 Pseudo-Philo, VI, 10; bin Gorion, II, 78. 

50 Bin Gorion, loc. cit. 

51 N. N. Glatzer, Faith and Knowledge, p. 
178. 

52 R. J. Loewe, in A. Altmann, Biblical 
Motifs, p. 166, with Tanhuma text supplied 
in note 35. 

53 So in the Maase Abraham, in Beth ha- 
Midrasch, I, 34. According to the Sefer 
ha-Yashar, 8, "Abram walked in the midst of 
the fire for three days and three nights," cit. 
Vermes, p. 73. Ka'b el-Ahbar, Qissat Ibrahim 
Abinu, in Rev. Et. Juives, Vol. 70 (1920), 
p. 42; cf. Midrash de-Abraham Avinu, in Beth 
ha-Midrash, I, 40-41. According to Tha'labi 
(Qissas, p. 55), it was the "Angel of the 
Shadow" who sat with Abraham in the fire, i.e., 
he was sacrificed. 

04 A. Moortgat, Tammuz (Berlin: de Gruy- 
ter, 1949), pp. 63, 114, 139-142. 

55 In Beer, p. 113. 

56 P. R. Eliezer, Ch. 31, 38A.i. 

5 7 Ginzberg, Vol. 1, p. 281. 
5S Beer, p. 67. 

59 G. Vermes, Scripture and Tradition, p. 
205. 

60 Beer, p. 69. 

61 Ginzberg, Vol. 1, pp. 281-82; in another 
version Isaac's spirit went to paradise for three 
years before returning, ibid., pp. 285-87. 

62 Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 208. 

63 Cavalletti, in Studii e Materiali, 35: 263. 

64 Cahier des Curiosites Mystiques, Vol. 1 
(1874), pp. 152-55. 

65 R. A. Rosenberg, in J.B.L., Vol. 84, p. 388. 

66 Ibid., p. 386, citing Jubilees 18:18. 

67 Vermes, op. cit., p. 209. 

68 Ibid., p. 205. 

69 So Z. Mayani, Les Hyksos et le Monde de 
la Bible (Paris: Payot, 1956), p. 21. 

70 Vermes, pp. 193, 221. 

71 N. N. Glatzer, Faith and Knowledge, p. 
178. 

72 Beer, p. 57. 

73 Vermes, p. 204. 

74 Ibid., p. 208. 

75 Ginzberg, Vol. 1, p. 240. 
7 6 Rosenberg, p. 388. 

7 7 Cave of Treasures 29:13-14. 

78 Rosenberg, loc. cit., citing Targ. Levi 
22:27. 

79 Vermes, p. 193. 
so Ibid., p. 208. 

81 Holtzmann, Tosephtakraktat Berakot, in 
Ztschr. f. Alttest. Wiss., Vol. 23 (1912), pp. 
12f. 

82 Beer, p. 206. 

83 M. Braude, Midr. Ps. 55:2. 

84 See above, notes 37, 46-48, 70, 71, for 
examples. 

85 Vermes, p. 203, cit. Targ. Job 3:18. 

se J. Finkel, in Proc. Am. Acad. Jew, Re- 
search, Vol. 3 (1930), p. 14. 

87 Ibid., p. 12. 

88 Bin Gorion, II, 295. 

89 Beer, p. 70. 

90 Ginzberg, Vol. 1, p. 283. 

91 Finkel, p. 12. 

92 Rosenberg, in J.B.L., Vol. 84, p. 385. 

93 Ibid., pp. 383, 385. 

94 Ibid., p. 382. 

95 Ibid., p. 388. 

96 Beer, p. 15; M. Sprengling (ed.), Barhe- 
braeus' Scholia on the Old Testament (Univ. 
of Chicago, 1931), p. 49, comments on Gen. 
11:28. That Haran died as a substitute for 
Abraham is clearly indicated in Midr. in 
Beth ha-Midrasch I, 40; S. ha-Yashar (text in 
Vermes, p. 72); Ginzberg, L.J., Vol. 1, p. 216; 
bin Gorion, II, 96f; Beer, pp. 15-17; cf. Bar 
Hebrews, Scholion to Gen. 11:2; Midr. Rab., 
Noah 38:13. 



The true purpose of life is the 
perfection of humanity through 
individual effort, under the 
guidance of God's inspiration. 
— President David O. McKay 



94 



End of an Era 




Life Among 
the Mormons 



°®8 



After a few days of school 
with a new teacher, 
my seven-year-old daughter 
reported, "I don't think 
my new teacher is a Mormon. " 
"Why?" we asked. 
"Because she is never 
in a hurry, " was the reply. 
-Patricia Butitof er, 
Rigby, Idaho 

Before I joined the Church, 
a friend took me to Relief Society 
one morning. When she 
introduced me to the bishop's 
wife, she said, to no one 
in particular, "She's an 
investigator." Not knowing 
Latter-day Saint terminology, 
I took this as a subtle 
warning to me to be careful, 
that the bishop's wife 
would investigate me before 
I could join the Church. 
For quite a while after that I 
was most cautious and on 
my best behavior when in 
the company of the bishop's wife, 
so her report on me would 
be favorable ! 

— Kathleen N. Slater, 

Tooele, Utah 
"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anec- 
dotes and experiences that relate to the Latter-day 
Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 



Friend: Which of your works 

of fiction do you consider 

the best? 

Author: My last income tax 

return. 

An ounce of performance 
is worth more than a pound 
of preachment. 
-Elbert Hubbard 

It's sad but true, as marriage 
counselors know, that 
mighty pitfalls from little 
digs do grow. 

- — James J. Kelly, 
Marquette, Michigan 

Every seeker after truth 
should searchingly and 
honestly ask himself or herself 
this question: Am I attempting 
to climb heavenward 
by some other path than the 
one marked out by the Redeemer 
and Savior of men? 
— Elder Delbert L. Stapley 



Life has its disappointments 
but there is no reason to be 
one of them. 

Taxpayer: Do you know any 
reliable rule for estimating the 
cost of living? Accountant: 
Yes. Take your income, 
whatever that may be, and 
add 10 percent. 

"How old is she?" 
"Oh, I couldn't say — but she 
knew the Big Dipper when 
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You must learn day by day, 
year by year, to broaden 
your horizon. The more things 
you love, the more you are 
interested in, the more 
you enjoy, the more you are 
indignant about — the 
more you have left when 
anything happens. 
— Ethel Barrymore 



Mountain Versus Molehill 
By Evalyn M. Sandberg 



The gospel's high 
eternal peaks 
are really 
quite appealing. 
But day-by-day hills 
trip me up 

and keep me meek — 
and kneeling. 



Era, March 1970 95 



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